Photographier et cataloguer les filigranes des papiers médiévaux

Une petite équipe de l’IRHT a été reçue à Stuttgart aux Archives du Bade-Wurtemberg (Landesarchiv Baden-Württemberg, Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart) par M. le professeur Peter Rückert, directeur de la section ancienne (Staatliches Archivgut bis 1806, Bestandserhaltung, Durchführung der Ausbildung) et par M. Erwin Frauenknecht, directeur adjoint de la même section, puis à la Bibliothèque du Land de Bade-Wurtemberg (Württembergische Landesbibliothek) par Mme Kerstin Losert, directrice du département des Manuscrits. Avec eux, et venu spécialement de Vienne (Autriche), Mme Maria Stieglecker, de l’Académie des sciences d’Autriche (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften).

Notre équipe comprenait des collègues de l’IRHT, Marlène Helias-Baron, Gilles Kagan et moi-même, ainsi qu’Ilaria Pastrolin, ingénieure d’étude de l’École nationale des chartes, travaillant pour le projet Filigranes pour tous, qui associe les Chartes, l’IRHT et les Archives Nationales à l’École de Ponts ParisTech et à l’INRIA pour créer une application d’identification des filigranes.

Grâce à ces deux jours d’échanges portant tant sur des aspects théoriques que sur des aspects pratiques avec des sessions de travaux pratiques, nous avons pu :

  1. cataloguer scientifiquement des filigranes dans le système WZIS (Wasserzeichen-Informationssystem), qui alimente la base de données en ligne du même nom et permet d’intégrer les notions d’identité, de variante, de contre-marque et permettant d’échelonner, redimensionner, manipuler les images (dessins, frottis, betaradiographie, photographies à la feuille lumineuse, photographies infra-rouge), tout en redressant les images selon la direction des pontuseaux, en automatisant les mesures de largeur et hauteur de filigranes, de largeur entre pontuseaux et en permettant la superposition des motifs pour mieux les comparer ;
  2. intégrer des filigranes de manuscrits de la bibliothèque d’agglomération de Saint-Omer dans la base de données ;
  3. photographier les filigranes du papier par capture dans le spectre infra-rouge ;
  4. découvrir les installations de numérisation présentes à Stuttgart, donc, outre l’appareil pour la capture infra-rouge aussi la célèbre “table de numérisation de Graz” (Grazer Buchtisch), le presque aussi célèbre “traveller” et d’autres aménagements.

Ces échanges riches d’enseignement ouvrent la voie à de nouvelles coopérations et feront prochainement l’objet d’un rapport plus complet sur le site de l’IRHT. Nous remercions très chaleureusement nos collègues allemands et autrichiens qui nous ont reçu avec enthousiasme et générosité

PS: Stuttgart est aussi une ville magnifique, où la bibliothèque municipale est d’une grande beauté et l’atmosphère du festival d’été nous donne déjà envie de revenir !

 

 

 

Ceci n'est pas un filigrane, mais un lapin qui offre bonbons et chocolats !

EAD-TEI et TEI-EAD : quelques réflexions sur la conversion des notices de manuscrits médiévaux d’un format à l’autre

Le cycle des métadonnées est un système complexe, sur lequel j’ai écrit il y a déjà fort longtemps lorsque je travaillais au département des Métadonnées de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, lorsqu’il s’appelait département de « l’information bibliographique et numérique (IBN) »[1]. Après avoir changé de métier, la problématique a pris un tour différent et, délaissant les conversions d’EAD, d’Intermarc, d’Unimarc, de Dublin Core, de formats européens (TEL+ et Europeana), les uns vers les autres, j’ai travaillé davantage avec TEI et, quelques années plus tard, la question EAD-TEI et retour est revenue. En effet, dans le projet « Saint-Bertin, centre culturel du VIIe au XVIIIe s. »[2], j’ai eu besoin de créer une structure TEI à partir de l’EAD issu de la retroconversion du Catalogue général des manuscrits (celui de J. Michelant) [3], puis j’ai commencé à préparer l’export de retour pour rendre au CCFr le fruit des travaux.

Ce faisant, avec Laura Lebarbey, Ekaterina Novokhatko et Jean-Baptiste Camps, nous avons établi des feuilles de transformation correspondant à notre format TEI et à notre format EAD, que nous avons publiées dans la partie « sources et ressources » du site Saint-Bertin (https://saint-bertin.irht.cnrs.fr/site/php/sources_ressources.php).

Philosophie des formats

Continuer la lecture de EAD-TEI et TEI-EAD : quelques réflexions sur la conversion des notices de manuscrits médiévaux d’un format à l’autre

Découvertes et nouveaux fragments carolingiens à la bibliothèque d’agglomération du pays de Saint-Omer

La dernière mission de l’Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes pour explorer les manuscrits médiévaux de la bibliothèque d’agglomération du Pays de Saint-Omer a, comme les précédentes, apporté son lot d’heureuses découvertes.

Par exemple, nous avons pu affiner l’identification de l’usage liturgique et l’emploi spécifique de deux manuscrits pour la collégiale (aujourd’hui cathédrale) de Saint-Omer.

Le ms. 699 lectionnaire que le catalogue de Michelant (donc le CGM) datait du XIVe siècle est en fait du XIIIe siècle et porte les traces de l’évolution de la liturgie audomaroise. Si Duchet, dans ses Additions et corrections, a bien noté plusieurs des fêtes, dont celle d’Erkembode d’intérêt très local, il ne signale pas qu’il y a une partie primitive (sanctoral commençant à la fête de saint Omer, puis temporal, puis commun) et des ajouts, en particulier celui de la Fête-Dieu (instituée à partir de 1264). En outre, les feuillets de garde sont remplis de noms, qu’il nous reste à identifier, pour certains, mais qui sont très vraisemblablement des chanoines.

Le ms. 258 , catalogué par Michelant (donc le CGM) comme un
Ordo ad visitandum et ungendum infirmum anonyme, est correctement muni d’une provenance de la cathédrale de Saint-Omer par les Additions et corrections de Duchet. L’étude des litanies montre néanmoins que ce n’est pas seulement une provenance, mais assurément une origine ! En effet, on y trouve “Sancte Audomare” (saint Omer) deux fois au début de la liste et “Sancte Bertine” à la fin (f. 11r-v). Il est donc certainement destiné à l’usage de la collégiale (aujourd’hui cathédrale) Notre-Dame de Saint-Omer et produit dans la région. Il n’est d’ailleurs pas certain que ce soit un fragment d’un plus grand ensemble. En effet, il peut parfaitement s’agir d’un livret d’usage pratique pour un prêtre amené à visiter les malades de la ville, hommes et femmes (toutes les formules sont indiquées aux deux genres). Sa date peut être précisée au troisième quart du XVe siècle.

Outre des fragments en onciale que nous avions déjà vus la dernière fois dans le ms. 437 (numérisé dans la BVMM), mais que nous avons réexaminés, nous pouvons signaler aussi deux manuscrits où nous avons vu des fragments en écriture caroline. Jacob Currie a déjà twitté sa découverte dans le ms. 883. Grâce à l’habileté de Remy Cordonner, les talons dans la reliure ont été immédiatement dégagés et révèlent le début du commentaire de saint Jérôme sur Michée.

Dans la magnifique salle de lecture de la Bibliothèque d’agglomération du pays de Saint-Omer, Remy Cordonnier, responsable du fonds ancien, présente le manuscrit 883 avec le fragment dégagé de la contregarde supérieure du volume.

On signalera aussi notre découverte de fragments dans le ms. 356. Pour l’instant non identifiés, mais nous sommes preneurs de suggestions !

Un nouveau manuscrit daté : Montpellier, BIUM, H109 (Papias)

Au cours de mon étude sur la transmission des textes chez les Cisterciens, je collationne (partiellement) plusieurs manuscrits de Papias, dont l’un provenant de Clairvaux, le ms. Montpellier, Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de Médecine, H 109 (catalogue de Pierre de Virey, S 59). L’ex-libris de Clairvaux se voit d’ailleurs dès le premier feuillet

Montpellier, BIUM, H109, fol. 1r
Ex-libris de l’abbaye de Clairvaux : “Liber sancte Marie Clarevallis” (Montpellier, BIUM, H109, fol. 1r, détail)

Continuer la lecture de Un nouveau manuscrit daté : Montpellier, BIUM, H109 (Papias)

Text as object in the Middle Ages

Call for Papers – Leeds International Medieval Congress, 1-4 July 2019, Leeds

The International Medieval Congress (IMC) is the largest medieval studies conference in the world. More than 2,900 medievalists from more than 60 countries participated in the 25th annual International Medieval Congress (IMC) from 2-5 July 2018.

In line with the Special Thematic Strand in 2019 “Materialities” (https://www.leeds.ac.uk/ims/imc/imc2019_call.html) and the recent creation of the strand “Manuscript studies”, we organize sessions on “Text as object in the Middle Ages”. Texts, indeed, are at the same time an idea and a form. The latter is the result of a combination of inherited social uses and specific intentions by the various actors involved in transmitting the text as idea. This process begins with the authors, continues to the craftsmen (parchment and paper makers, copyists and chancery clerks, painters and illuminators, sculptors and weavers, booksellers…) and then on to possessors, readers, archives and libraries. All textual artefacts are concerned: manuscripts, charters, inscriptions, tapestries, seals, coins, etc.

What scholars can study nowadays is however only one specific, if not final, state of those manuscripts, documents and inscriptions, from which they seek to reconstruct the respective intents of the actors. Under the topic “Text as object in the Middle Ages”, we intend to study the interplay of the original creation act, the possible transformations, and modern scholarship, especially along the following lines: “archaeology of a research concept”, “materiality in scholarly editions”, “genre and materiality”, “fragments”, “imaging techniques and physicochemical analysis”


Paris, Archives Nationales, JJ 145, fol. 193r [https://bvmm.irht.cnrs.fr/iiif/23834/canvas/canvas-2360446/view]

 

  • Archaeology of a research concept: awareness of materiality in the 15th-19th centuries

Medieval library catalogues started including dictiones probatoriae or secundo folio as identifiers of a given manuscript as object rather than as the bearer of a text; additional information on the physical appearance could also be indicated (size of the script, illumination, …). Cartularies and registers, but also inventories, sometimes include a description of the original charter, be it in a text form, be it as a  drawing (“copie figurée”), also for elements which are no validation signs. These are early examples of an awareness of material aspects in textual artefacts.  “materiality” as a term is rather new in historiographical research, however there is a complex archaeology of this research concept applied to texts. Starting in the Middle Ages, it became more prominent with the rise of the “auxiliary sciences” such as palaeography and diplomatics in the 17th and 18th century which were very much focused on the material aspects of written objects. By the 19th century it found its way into the bibliographic descriptions, either in a scholarly environment or in auction and sales catalogues as part of a bibliophilic interest.

This pre-historical time of “materiality” as a research concept is not well known. We welcome proposals dealing with examples of a “material” approach to manuscripts and documents in medieval and early modern times, and evidencing the consequences of this past material concern on modern scholarship (e.g. identification of well described manuscripts in past collections vs. apparently lost collections).

  • Materiality in Scholarly Editions

When doing editorial work, scholars may take the materiality of the text into account and either decide to discard their observations or communicate them to the user. From imitative, so-called “diplomatic” editions to very normalizing ones, several models coexist depending on editorial goals, national traditions, text genres, or witness tradition with regard to the nature of the textual work. Discussions of former editions and practices are welcome, as well as proposals discussing the current developments in scholarly editions. This could include reflections on the tensions resulting from tight schedules due to fixed-term contracts and the ideal of exhaustive material description and analysis.

  • Genre and materiality: literary genre and their influence on layout, decoration, and scripts

The connection between text and object is reflected by specific requirements for the written object in the fields of diplomatics, epigraphy, codicology (layout, material structure), art history (iconography, decoration), and palaeography (script types, abbreviations, script size and degree of formality).

Recurrent patterns in book production have already been identified, such as books of hours and prayers for lay people being small in size, illustrated, and written in long lines, or genealogies and universal histories being written in scroll format in order to stress the continuity. There are also illuminators working mainly in the production of one or two literary genres, for whom it is not always possible to ascertained if it is a consequence of being hired by one librarian or if they specialized into specific iconographic types. Illuminated charters as a category may also be connected with specific conditions in their creation.

Connexions between script types and text genres also may be a medieval reality uncovered by modern research (Beneventan/Caroline scripts depending on genres) or a historiographical construct (such as the misleading “gothic liturgical script” or Uncial as Christian script). In this regard, cultural divide and contact zones (Beneventan, Wisigothic vs. Caroline; Humanistic vs. Gothic) deserve special attention, as well as a further study of “pragmatic literacy” under the pragmatic aspect of writing.

Medieval autographs form a cross-genre domain, in which the intervention of the author may provide modern scholars with additional information. Yet, only a reciprocal analysis of text and handwriting in their context should allow the expertise of autography. Theoretical proposals and case studies demonstrating how material (here mainly palaeographic) and textual inquiries interact are welcome.

Papers could focus on new results within these known patterns or new connections between text and materiality.

  • Fragments and damaged text objects: an ex post decided layout and format definition

Fragments are a challenging form to study manuscripts both as texts and objects. They pose specific challenges for the identification of the textual contents as well as the objects’ origin and life. Proposals may present innovative tools and projects, as well as scholarly research based on virtual or physical reconstruction of dismembered or fragmentary text objects. The organizers particularly welcome proposals dealing with the fragment as source for the broader historical context (e.g. textual history, reception and cultural transfers).

  • Imaging techniques and physicochemical analysis of medieval text objects

The material analysis is not a new field any more. Imaging techniques available for manuscript research include those based on physicochemical properties (multispectral, X-ray fluorescence, etc.) as well as those that allow a better perception of the object (Reflectance Transformation Imaging, 3D scan). Recent technological advances now allow a better coordination of textual studies,imaging and physicochemical research. Examples include the Archimedes palimpsest, the manuscripts from Mount Sinai or the rolls from Herculanum and Ein Gedi. For this session we expect proposals illustrating how material analyses or imaging techniques can reveal hidden or illegible text layers and therefore have a direct impact on our understanding of the textual content and its history.

 

Papers of 20 minutes in length are invited. To propose a paper, please send a brief abstract (250 words max) to

  • dominique.stutzmann@irht.cnrs.fr
  • katharina.kaska@univie.ac.at
  • sebastien.barret@cnrs-orleans.fr
  • paul.bertrand@uclouvain.be
  • christoph.egger@univie.ac.at
  • georg.vogeler@uni-graz.at

The deadline for receipt of submissions is 25th September 2018.

Abréviations : listes mises à jour

En mai 2016, nous avons posté une liste d’entités pour gérer les abréviations, cf.Abréviations latines

Suite à la demande d’une collègue préparant un manuel d’encodage, nous publions nos listes actuelles :

1. Abréviations françaises

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>
<!ENTITY con-tironien-cun “<choice><expan>cun</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY com-tironien-e-suscrit-comme “<choice><expan>com<ex>mm</ex>e</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pb-tilde-re-prestre “<choice><expan>p<ex>rest</ex>re</expan><abbr>p<am>b̃</am>e</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY x-i-suscrit-Chresti “<choice><expan>Ch<ex>rest</ex>i</expan><abbr>x<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY bn-tilde-bien “<choice><expan>b<ex>ie</ex>n</expan><abbr>bn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cae-tilde-cause “<choice><expan>ca<ex>us</ex>e</expan><abbr>ca<am>̃</am>e</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY vr-tilde-vostr “<choice><expan>v<ex>ost</ex>r</expan><abbr>vr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ch-tilde-un-chascun “<choice><expan>ch<ex>asc</ex>un</expan><abbr>ch<am>̃</am>un</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-ur-eur “<choice><expan><ex>eur</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-ur-our “<choice><expan><ex>our</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-barré-selle “<choice><expan>s<ex>elle</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!– L’entité <!ENTITY s-barré-selle “<choice><expan>s<ex>elle</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>”> est fautive ; la valeur 1e9c vaut pour et tironien –><!ENTITY Mich-tilde-Michel “<choice><expan>Mich<ex>el</ex></expan><abbr>Mich<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY Ph-tilde-Philippes “<choice><expan>Ph<ex>ilippes</ex></expan><abbr>Ph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY thoul-tilde-thoulouse “<choice><expan>thoul<ex>ouse</ex></expan><abbr>thoul<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-sion “<choice><expan><ex>sion</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-tilde-quel “<choice><expan>q<ex>uel</ex></expan><abbr>q<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY h-tilde-har “<choice><expan>h<ex>ar</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-es “<choice><expan>r<ex>es</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-o-suscrit-pour “<choice><expan>p<ex>o</ex>ur</expan><abbr>p<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY magd-tilde-magdelaine “<choice><expan>Magd<ex>elaine</ex></expan><abbr>magd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY vic-tilde-vincennes “<choice><expan>vic<ex>ennes</ex></expan><abbr>Vic<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY vendr-tilde-vendredi “<choice><expan>vendr<ex>edi</ex></expan><abbr>vendr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY Guill-tilde-e-Guillaume “<choice><expan>Guill<ex>aum</ex>e</expan><abbr>Guill<am>̃</am>e</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ch-tilde-r-chevalier “<choice><expan>ch<ex>evalie</ex>r</expan><abbr>ch<am>̃</am>r</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-aucie “<choice><expan><ex>aucies</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-eschauz “<choice><expan><ex>eschauz</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lr-tilde-lettr “<choice><expan>l<ex>ett</ex>r</expan><abbr>lr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sen-tilde-seneschal “<choice><expan>sen<ex>eschal</ex></expan><abbr>sen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lb-tilde-livres “<choice><expan>l<ex>ivres</ex></expan><abbr>lb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lbr-tilde-livres “<choice><expan>l<ex>ivres</ex></expan><abbr>lbr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-deniers “<choice><expan>d<ex>eniers</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY it-tilde-item “<choice><expan>it<ex>em</ex></expan><abbr>it<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY mons-signe-simple-monseigneur “<choice><expan>mons<ex>eigneur</ex></expan><abbr>mons<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-tilde-sols “<choice><expan>s<ex>ols</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-tilde-solz “<choice><expan>s<ex>olz</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-ier “<choice><expan><ex>ier</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ten-tilde-tenances “<choice><expan>ten<ex>ances</ex></expan><abbr>ten<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-iers “<choice><expan><ex>iers</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-eur “<choice><expan>e<ex>ur</ex></expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-ier “<choice><expan><ex>ier</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-ee “<choice><expan><ex>ee</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-barré-seurs “<choice><expan>s<ex>eurs</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY t-tilde-tiste “<choice><expan>t<ex>ist</ex></expan><abbr>te<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-a-suscrit-qua “<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>a</expan><abbr>q<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>

 

Abréviations latines

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”UTF-8″?>
<!– ABREVIATIONS PAR SUSPENSION –>
<!ENTITY a-antiphona “<choice><expan>a<ex>ntiphona</ex></expan><abbr>a</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-tilde-antiphona “<choice><expan>a<ex>ntiphona</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-signe-double-ad “<choice><expan>a<ex>d</ex></expan><abbr>a<am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-point-alleluia “<choice><expan>a<ex>lleluia</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-point-arundineto “<choice><expan>a<ex>rundineto</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY b-tilde-bernardus “<choice><expan>b<ex>ernardus</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY c-tilde-cetera “<choice><expan>c<ex>etera</ex></expan><abbr>c<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-denariorum “<choice><expan>d<ex>enariorum</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-denarios “<choice><expan>d<ex>enarios</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-dicatorum “<choice><expan>d<ex>icatorum</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-domine “<choice><expan>d<ex>omine</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-domini “<choice><expan>d<ex>omin</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-tilde-est “<choice><expan>e<ex>st</ex></expan><abbr>e<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-tilde-es “<choice><expan>e<ex>s</ex></expan><abbr>e<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY f-tilde-fratris “<choice><expan>f<ex>ratris</ex></expan><abbr>f<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-signe-simple-meum “<choice><expan>m<ex>eum</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY N-point-Nicolao “<choice><expan>N<ex>icolao</ex></expan><abbr>N<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY n-tilde-non “<choice><expan>n<ex>on</ex></expan><abbr>n<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-tilde-omnis “<choice><expan>o<ex>mnis</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-signe-double-paulus “<choice><expan>p<ex>aulus</ex></expan><abbr>p<am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-tilde-psalm “<choice><expan>p<ex>salm</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-tilde-psalmus “<choice><expan>p<ex>salmus</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-point-quasi “<choice><expan>q<ex>uasi</ex></expan><abbr>q.</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY r-tilde-respo “<choice><expan>r<ex>espo</ex></expan><abbr>r<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY r-tilde-respondit “<choice><expan>r<ex>espondit</ex></expan><abbr>r<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY r-tilde-responsorium “<choice><expan>r<ex>esponsorium</ex></expan><abbr>r<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY r-point-rei “<choice><expan>r<ex>ei</ex></expan><abbr>r<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-point-scilicet “<choice><expan>s<ex>cilicet</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-tilde-sancti “<choice><expan>s<ex>ancti</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-tilde-sermone “<choice><expan>s<ex>ermone</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-tilde-sunt “<choice><expan>s<ex>unt</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY u-tilde-ut “<choice><expan>u<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>u<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY u-tilde-uersus “<choice><expan>u<ex>ersus</ex></expan><abbr>u<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– SUSPENSIONS –>
<!ENTITY an-tilde-antiphona “<choice><expan>an<ex>tiphona</ex></expan><abbr>an<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ant-tilde-antiphona “<choice><expan>ant<ex>iphona</ex></expan><abbr>ant<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ap-tilde-apud “<choice><expan>ap<ex>ud</ex></expan><abbr>ap<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ar-point-argento “<choice><expan>ar<ex>gento</ex></expan><abbr>ar<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY arg-tilde-argentum “<choice><expan>ar<ex>gentum</ex></expan><abbr>arg<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY aug-tilde-augustinus “<choice><expan>aug<ex>ustinus</ex></expan><abbr>aug<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY bened-tilde-benedicite “<choice><expan>bened<ex>icite</ex></expan><abbr>bene<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cant-tilde-cantici “<choice><expan>cant<ex>ici</ex></expan><abbr>cant<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cant-tilde-canticum “<choice><expan>cant<ex>icum</ex></expan><abbr>cant<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cap-tilde-capitulum “<choice><expan>cap<ex>itulum</ex></expan><abbr>cap<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY capitan-tilde-capitanei “<choice><expan>capitan<ex>ei</ex></expan><abbr>capitan<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY card-tilde-cardinalem “<choice><expan>card<ex>inalem</ex></expan><abbr>card<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY coll-tilde-collecta “<choice><expan>coll<ex>ecta</ex></expan><abbr>coll<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY con-point-conpeditorum “<choice><expan>con<ex>peditorum</ex></expan><abbr>con<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY con-point-concilio “<choice><expan>con<ex>cilio</ex></expan><abbr>con<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cor-point-cordibus “<choice><expan>cor<ex>dibus</ex></expan><abbr>cor<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY coss-point-consulibus “<choice><expan>co<ex>n</ex>s<ex>ulibus</ex></expan><abbr>coss<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cre-point-cremium “<choice><expan>cre<ex>mium</ex></expan><abbr>cre<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cur-tilde-curie “<choice><expan>cur<ex>ie</ex></expan><abbr>cur<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dan-tilde-danielis “<choice><expan>dan<ex>ielis</ex></expan><abbr>dan<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY de-tilde-demoliuntur “<choice><expan>de<ex>moliuntur</ex></expan><abbr>de<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY di-point-dimidio “<choice><expan>di<ex>midio</ex></expan><abbr>di<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY di-point-dicamus “<choice><expan>di<ex>camus</ex></expan><abbr>di<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY di-point-discurrent “<choice><expan>di<ex>scurrent</ex></expan><abbr>di<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dist-tilde-distinctio “<choice><expan>dist<ex>inctio</ex></expan><abbr>dist<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY do-point-dominum “<choice><expan>do<ex>minum</ex></expan><abbr>do<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ecc-i-suscrit-ecclesiasticus “<choice><expan>ecc<ex>les</ex>i<ex>asticus</ex></expan><abbr>ecc<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY el-tilde-eleison “<choice><expan>el<ex>eison</ex></expan><abbr>el<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY et-tilde-etiam “<choice><expan>et<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr>et<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY eug-tilde-euangelio “<choice><expan>eu<ex>an</ex>g<ex>elio</ex></expan><abbr>eug<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY febr-tilde-februario “<choice><expan>febr<ex>uario</ex></expan><abbr>febr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fest-tilde-festiuitate “<choice><expan>fest<ex>iuitate</ex></expan><abbr>fest<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ge-point-gemitum “<choice><expan>ge<ex>mitum</ex></expan><abbr>ge<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ge-point-generatione “<choice><expan>ge<ex>neratione</ex></expan><abbr>ge<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ge-point-generationem “<choice><expan>ge<ex>nerationem</ex></expan><abbr>ge<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gen-tilde-genesis “<choice><expan>gen<ex>nesis</ex></expan><abbr>ge<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ianuar-tilde-ianuarias “<choice><expan>ianuar<ex>ias</ex></expan><abbr>ianuar<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ian-tilde-ianuario “<choice><expan>ian<ex>uario</ex></expan><abbr>ian<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY in-tilde-inde “<choice><expan>in<ex>de</ex></expan><abbr>in<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY indic-tilde-indictione “<choice><expan>indic<ex>tione</ex></expan><abbr>indic<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ini-point-inimici “<choice><expan>ini<ex>mici</ex></expan><abbr>ini<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY io-point-iohanne “<choice><expan>io<ex>hanne</ex></expan><abbr>io<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY io-point-iohannes “<choice><expan>io<ex>hannes</ex></expan><abbr>io<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ip-point-ipse “<choice><expan>ip<ex>se</ex></expan><abbr>ip<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY iudic-tilde-iudices “<choice><expan>iudic<ex>es</ex></expan><abbr>iudic<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-laudes “<choice><expan>l<ex>audes</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-laudibus “<choice><expan>l<ex>audibus</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY la-point-lapides “<choice><expan>la<ex>pides</ex></expan><abbr>la<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY matut-point-matutinum “<choice><expan>ma<ex>tutinum</ex></expan><abbr>matut<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY miss-tilde-missione “<choice><expan>miss<ex>ione</ex></expan><abbr>miss<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY no-point-nostris “<choice><expan>no<ex>stris</ex></expan><abbr>no<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY no-point-nota “<choice><expan>no<ex>ta</ex></expan><abbr>no<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nobil-tilde-nobilium “<choice><expan>nobil<ex>ium</ex></expan><abbr>nobil<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY noc-point-nocturno “<choice><expan>noc<ex>turno</ex></expan><abbr>noc<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY non-tilde-nonas “<choice><expan>non<ex>as</ex></expan><abbr>non<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nos-point-nostrum “<choice><expan>nos<ex>trum</ex></expan><abbr>nos<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY oct-tilde-octaua “<choice><expan>oct<ex>aua</ex></expan><abbr>oct<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ord-tilde-ordinis “<choice><expan>ord<ex>inis</ex></expan><abbr>ord<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-point-plurimam “<choice><expan>p<ex>lurimam</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pa-point-patris “<choice><expan>pa<ex>tris</ex></expan><abbr>pa<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pau-point-paucitatem “<choice><expan>pau<ex>citatem</ex></expan><abbr>pau<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pe-point-petri “<choice><expan>pe<ex>tri</ex></expan><abbr>pe<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pont-tilde-pontifice “<choice><expan>pont<ex>ifice</ex></expan><abbr>pont<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pot-tilde-potest “<choice><expan>pot<ex>est</ex></expan><abbr>pot<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ps-tilde-psalmus “<choice><expan>ps<ex>almus</ex></expan><abbr>ps<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY rel-tilde-relicta “<choice><expan>rel<ex>icta</ex></expan><abbr>rel<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sal-point-salutem “<choice><expan>sal<ex>utem</ex></expan><abbr>sal<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sal-tilde-salutem “<choice><expan>sal<ex>utem</ex></expan><abbr>sal<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY salt-tilde-salutem “<choice><expan>sal<ex>u</ex>t<ex>em</ex></expan><abbr>salt<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY scin-point-scintille “<choice><expan>scin<ex>tille</ex></expan><abbr>scin<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY secular-tilde-seculares “<choice><expan>secular<ex>es</ex></expan><abbr>secular<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tha-point-thalamo “<choice><expan>tha<ex>lamo</ex></expan><abbr>tha<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY uen-tilde-uenerabili “<choice><expan>uen<ex>erabili</ex></expan><abbr>uen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY uigl-tilde-uigilia “<choice><expan>uig<ex>i</ex>l<ex>ia</ex></expan><abbr>uigl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ui-point-uineas “<choice><expan>ui<ex>neas</ex></expan><abbr>ui<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY un-tilde-unde “<choice><expan>un<ex>de</ex></expan><abbr>un<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ysa-point-ysaias “<choice><expan>ysa<ex>ias</ex></expan><abbr>ysa<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– SUSPENSIONS SYLLABIQUES –>
<!ENTITY bn-tilde-benedicite “<choice><expan>b<ex>e</ex>n<ex>edicite</ex></expan><abbr>bn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY bn-tilde-benedictionem “<choice><expan>b<ex>e</ex>n<ex>edictionem</ex></expan><abbr>bn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dd-tilde-danda “<choice><expan>d<ex>an</ex>d<ex>a</ex></expan><abbr>dd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gg-gregori “<choice><expan>g<ex>re</ex>g<ex>ori</ex></expan><abbr>gg<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY psl-tilde-psalmorum “<choice><expan>ps<ex>a</ex>l<ex>morum</ex></expan><abbr>psl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ms-tilde-mense “<choice><expan>m<ex>en</ex>s<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>ms<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pp-tilde-pape “<choice><expan>p<ex>a</ex>p<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>pp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qr-tilde-quare “<choice><expan>q<ex>ua</ex>r<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>qr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sn-tilde-sine “<choice><expan>s<ex>i</ex>n<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>sn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tm-tilde-tamen “<choice><expan>t<ex>a</ex>m<ex>en</ex></expan><abbr>tm<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tpr-tilde-tempore “<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>o</ex>r<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>tpr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tpr-tilde-tempora “<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>o</ex>r<ex>a</ex></expan><abbr>tpr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– ABREVIATIONS PAR CONTRACTION –>
<!– RADICAUX –>
<!ENTITY a-i-suscrit-ali “<choice><expan>a<ex>l</ex>i</expan><abbr>a<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-tilde-anim “<choice><expan>a<ex>nim</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY acc-tilde-accus “<choice><expan>acc<ex>us</ex></expan><abbr>acc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY affo-afforis “<choice><expan>affo<ex>ris</ex></expan><abbr>affo</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY affo-afforismo “<choice><expan>affo<ex>rismo</ex></expan><abbr>affo</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ai-tilde-anim “<choice><expan>a<ex>n</ex>i<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr>ai<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY angl-tilde-angel “<choice><expan>ang<ex>e</ex>l</expan><abbr>angl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY angl-tilde-angelu “<choice><expan>ang<ex>e</ex>lu</expan><abbr>angl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-ann “<choice><expan>a<ex>nn</ex></expan><abbr>a</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY antiph-tilde-antiphon “<choice><expan>antiph<ex>on</ex></expan><abbr>antiph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY apl-tilde-apostol “<choice><expan>ap<ex>osto</ex>l</expan><abbr>apl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY apl-tilde-apostolu “<choice><expan>ap<ex>osto</ex>lu</expan><abbr>apl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY appo-appoplexi “<choice><expan>appo<ex>plexi</ex></expan><abbr>appo</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY assup-assumpti “<choice><expan>assu<ex>m</ex>p<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>assup</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY auct-tilde-auctoritat “<choice><expan>auct<ex>oritate</ex></expan><abbr>auct<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY aucto-a-suscrit-auctorita “<choice><expan>aucto<ex>rit</ex>a</expan><abbr>aucto<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY b-bernard “<choice><expan>b<ex>ernard</ex></expan><abbr>b</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY b-tilde-beat “<choice><expan>b<ex>eat</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY b-tilde-beatu “<choice><expan>b<ex>eatu</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY bt-tilde-beat “<choice><expan>b<ex>ea</ex>t</expan><abbr>bt<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY c-tilde-caus “<choice><expan>c<ex>aus</ex></expan><abbr>c<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ca-capitul “<choice><expan>ca<ex>pitul</ex></expan><abbr>ca</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cap-capitul “<choice><expan>cap<ex>itul</ex></expan><abbr>cap</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY capl-tilde-capitul “<choice><expan>cap<ex>itu</ex>l</expan><abbr>capl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY capl-tilde-capitulu “<choice><expan>cap<ex>itu</ex>l<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>capl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY coi-tilde-communi “<choice><expan>co<ex>mmun</ex>i</expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am>i</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY comu-com-tironien-commun “<choice><expan>com<ex>m</ex>u<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝯu</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY comun-com-tironien-communi “<choice><expan>com<ex>m</ex>u<ex>n</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ꝯui</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY confo-tilde-confessio “<choice><expan>conf<ex>essi</ex>o</expan><abbr>confo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cupi-tilde-cupiscienti “<choice><expan>cupi<ex>scienti</ex></expan><abbr>cupi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-de “<choice><expan>d<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-deb “<choice><expan>d<ex>eb</ex></expan><abbr>d</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-deu “<choice><expan>d<ex>eu</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-domin “<choice><expan>d<ex>omin</ex></expan><abbr>d</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-dominu “<choice><expan>d<ex>ominu</ex></expan><abbr>d</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dc-tilde-dict “<choice><expan>d<ex>i</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>dc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dc-tilde-dicti “<choice><expan>d<ex>i</ex>c<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>dc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dc-tilde-dictu “<choice><expan>d<ex>i</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>dc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dicen-tilde-dicenti “<choice><expan>dicen<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>dicen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY digni-dignita “<choice><expan>digni<ex>ta</ex></expan><abbr>digni</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dn-tilde-domin “<choice><expan>d<ex>omi</ex>n</expan><abbr>dn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dn-tilde-dominu “<choice><expan>d<ex>omi</ex>n<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>dn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY do-domin “<choice><expan>do<ex>min</ex></expan><abbr>do</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY do-tilde-domin “<choice><expan>do<ex>min</ex></expan><abbr>do<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY do-dominu “<choice><expan>do<ex>minu</ex></expan><abbr>do</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY duc-ducti “<choice><expan>duc<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>duc</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ecc-eccles “<choice><expan>ecc<ex>les</ex></expan><abbr>ecc</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ecc-ecclesi “<choice><expan>ecc<ex>lesi</ex></expan><abbr>ecc</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY eccl-tilde-eccles “<choice><expan>eccl<ex>es</ex></expan><abbr>eccl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY eccl-tilde-ecclesi “<choice><expan>eccl<ex>esi</ex></expan><abbr>eccl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ęccl-tilde-ęcclesi “<choice><expan>ęccl<ex>esi</ex></expan><abbr>ęccl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ee-tilde-esse “<choice><expan>e<ex>ss</ex>e</expan><abbr>ee<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY efficass-tilde-efficacissim “<choice><expan>effica<ex>ci</ex>ss<ex>im</ex></expan><abbr>efficass<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY elc-tilde-elect “<choice><expan>el<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>elc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY emin-tilde-eminenti “<choice><expan>emin<ex>enti</ex></expan><abbr>emin<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ep-tilde-episcop “<choice><expan>ep<ex>iscop</ex></expan><abbr>ep<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ep-tilde-episcopu “<choice><expan>ep<ex>iscopu</ex></expan><abbr>ep<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY epl-tilde-epistul “<choice><expan>ep<ex>istu</ex>l</expan><abbr>epl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY eugl-tilde-euangel “<choice><expan>eu<ex>an</ex>g<ex>e</ex>l</expan><abbr>eugl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY eugl-tilde-euangeli “<choice><expan>eu<ex>an</ex>g<ex>e</ex>l<ex>i</ex></expan><abbr>eugl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY eugl-tilde-euangeliu “<choice><expan>eu<ex>an</ex>g<ex>e</ex>l<ex>iu</ex></expan><abbr>eugl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ex-exempl “<choice><expan>ex<ex>empl</ex></expan><abbr>ex</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY exem-exempl “<choice><expan>exem<ex>pl</ex></expan><abbr>exem</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY f-tilde-fier “<choice><expan>f<ex>ier</ex></expan><abbr>f<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fac “<choice><expan>f<ex>a</ex>c</expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fact “<choice><expan>f<ex>a</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-factu “<choice><expan>f<ex>a</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fect “<choice><expan>f<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fecti “<choice><expan>f<ex>e</ex>c<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fectu “<choice><expan>f<ex>e</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fct-tilde-factu “<choice><expan>f<ex>a</ex>ct<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY flui-tilde-flumin “<choice><expan>flu<ex>m</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>flu<am>̃</am>i</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fo-tilde-fessio “<choice><expan>f<ex>essi</ex>o</expan><abbr>fo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fr-tilde-fratr “<choice><expan>fr<ex>atr</ex></expan><abbr>fr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fr-tilde-fratre “<choice><expan>fr<ex>atre</ex></expan><abbr>fr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY fr-tilde-fratru “<choice><expan>fr<ex>atru</ex></expan><abbr>fr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY g-tilde-gente “<choice><expan>g<ex>ente</ex></expan><abbr>g<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY g-tilde-grati “<choice><expan>g<ex>rati</ex></expan><abbr>g<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gi-gimen “<choice><expan>gi<ex>men</ex></expan><abbr>gi</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gl-tilde-glor “<choice><expan>gl<ex>or</ex></expan><abbr>gl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gl-tilde-glori “<choice><expan>gl<ex>ori</ex></expan><abbr>gl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gn-tilde-gener “<choice><expan>g<ex>e</ex>n<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr>gn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gn-tilde-generation “<choice><expan>g<ex>e</ex>n<ex>eration</ex></expan><abbr>gn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gn-tilde-gente “<choice><expan>g<ex>e</ex>n<ex>te</ex></expan><abbr>gn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gno-tilde-generatio “<choice><expan>g<ex>e</ex>n<ex>erati</ex>o</expan><abbr>gn<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gno-tilde-generation “<choice><expan>g<ex>e</ex>n<ex>erati</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>gn<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gr-tilde-grati “<choice><expan>gr<ex>ati</ex></expan><abbr>gr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY gt-tilde-gente “<choice><expan>g<ex>en</ex>t<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>gt<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY guill-tilde-guillelmu “<choice><expan>guill<ex>elmu</ex></expan><abbr>guill<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hab “<choice><expan>h<ex>ab</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY h-tilde-habe “<choice><expan>h<ex>abe</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hib “<choice><expan>h<ex>ib</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ho-tilde-homo “<choice><expan>h<ex>om</ex>o</expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ho-tilde-homin “<choice><expan>ho<ex>min</ex></expan><abbr>ho<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ho-tilde-hominu “<choice><expan>ho<ex>minu</ex></expan><abbr>ho<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY hoi-tilde-homin “<choice><expan>ho<ex>m</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>hoi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY hoi-tilde-hominu “<choice><expan>ho<ex>m</ex>i<ex>nu</ex></expan><abbr>hoi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY hom-tilde-homin “<choice><expan>hom<ex>in</ex></expan><abbr>hom<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY hr-tilde-here “<choice><expan>h<ex>e</ex>r<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>hr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ih-tilde-ies “<choice><expan>i<ex>es</ex></expan><abbr>ih<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ih-tilde-iesu “<choice><expan>i<ex>esu</ex></expan><abbr>ih<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-i-suscrit-ibi “<choice><expan>i<ex>b</ex>i</expan><abbr>i<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ioh-tilde-iohann “<choice><expan>ioh<ex>ann</ex></expan><abbr>ioh<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ioh-tilde-iohanne “<choice><expan>ioh<ex>anne</ex></expan><abbr>ioh<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ip-ips “<choice><expan>ip<ex>s</ex></expan><abbr>ip</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ip-tilde-ips “<choice><expan>ip<ex>s</ex></expan><abbr>ip<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ip-tilde-ipsu “<choice><expan>ip<ex>su</ex></expan><abbr>ip<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY it-tilde-iteru “<choice><expan>it<ex>eru</ex></expan><abbr>it<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY iusti-tilde-iustiti “<choice><expan>iusti</expan><abbr>iusti<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY kl-tilde-kalend “<choice><expan>k<ex>a</ex>l<ex>end</ex></expan><abbr>kl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY km-tilde-karissim “<choice><expan>k<ex>arissi</ex>m</expan><abbr>km<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lect “<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lecti “<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex>c<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-lectio “<choice><expan>l<ex>ectio</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lectio “<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex>c<ex>tio</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lectu “<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY li-libr “<choice><expan>li<ex>br</ex></expan><abbr>li</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lui-tilde-lumin “<choice><expan>lu<ex>m</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>lui<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-maxim “<choice><expan>m<ex>axim</ex></expan><abbr>m</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-tilde-me “<choice><expan>m<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-tilde-meu “<choice><expan>m<ex>eu</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-tilde-miseri “<choice><expan>m<ex>iseri</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-tilde-mod “<choice><expan>m<ex>od</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY magr-tilde-magistr “<choice><expan>mag<ex>ist</ex>r</expan><abbr>magr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY magr-tilde-magistru “<choice><expan>mag<ex>ist</ex>r<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>magr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY math-tilde-matheu “<choice><expan>math<ex>eu</ex></expan><abbr>math<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY me-medici “<choice><expan>me<ex>dici</ex></expan><abbr>me</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY mi-min “<choice><expan>m<ex>in</ex></expan><abbr>m</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY mi-tilde-misericordi “<choice><expan>mi<ex>sericordi</ex></expan><abbr>mi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY milli-tilde-millesim “<choice><expan>mill<ex>es</ex>i<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr>milli<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY miscdi-tilde-misericordi “<choice><expan>mis<ex>eri</ex>c<ex>or</ex>di</expan><abbr>miscdi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY mo-mod “<choice><expan>mo<ex>d</ex></expan><abbr>mo</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY mr-tilde-martir “<choice><expan>m<ex>arti</ex>r</expan><abbr>mr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY mr-tilde-matr “<choice><expan>m<ex>at</ex>r</expan><abbr>mr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY n-tilde-nome “<choice><expan>n<ex>ome</ex></expan><abbr>n<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY n-tilde-sp-ur-natur “<choice><expan>n<ex>atur</ex></expan><abbr>n<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nec-tilde-neccessari “<choice><expan>nec<ex>essari</ex></expan><abbr>nec<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY necc-tilde-neccessari “<choice><expan>nec<surplus>c</surplus><ex>essari</ex></expan><abbr>necc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY no-tilde-nomin “<choice><expan>no<ex>min</ex></expan><abbr>no<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY noi-tilde-nomin “<choice><expan>no<ex>m</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>noi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nr-tilde-noster “<choice><expan>n<ex>oste</ex>r</expan><abbr>nr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nr-tilde-nostr “<choice><expan>n<ex>ost</ex>r</expan><abbr>nr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nr-tilde-nostru “<choice><expan>n<ex>ost</ex>r<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>nr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nr-tilde-nostra “<choice><expan>n<ex>ost</ex>r<ex>a</ex></expan><abbr>nr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nu-tilde-numer “<choice><expan>nu<ex>mer</ex></expan><abbr>nu<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nu-tilde-numeru “<choice><expan>nu<ex>meru</ex></expan><abbr>nu<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-tilde-omn “<choice><expan>o<ex>mn</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-tilde-omne “<choice><expan>o<ex>mne</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-tilde-oste “<choice><expan>o<ex>ste</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ob-tilde-obedient “<choice><expan>ob<ex>edient</ex></expan><abbr>ob<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ob-tilde-obiect “<choice><expan>ob<ex>iect</ex></expan><abbr>ob<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ob-tilde-obiectu “<choice><expan>ob<ex>iectu</ex></expan><abbr>ob<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY obl-tilde-oblat “<choice><expan>obl<ex>at</ex></expan><abbr>obl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ocl-tilde-ocul “<choice><expan>oc<ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>ocl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY occl-tilde-occul “<choice><expan>occ<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>occl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ocl-tilde-oculu “<choice><expan>oc<ex>u</ex>lu</expan><abbr>ocl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY oi-tilde-omnin “<choice><expan>o<ex>mn</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>oi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY oi-tilde-omniu “<choice><expan>o<ex>mn</ex>i<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>oi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY om-tilde-omn “<choice><expan>om<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>om<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY om-tilde-omne “<choice><expan>om<ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr>om<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY om-tilde-omni “<choice><expan>om<ex>ni</ex></expan><abbr>om<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY or-tilde-orati “<choice><expan>or<ex>ati</ex></expan><abbr>or<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY oro-tilde-oration “<choice><expan>or<ex>ati</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>or<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY oro-tilde-oratione “<choice><expan>or<ex>ati</ex>o<ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr>or<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-tilde-pate “<choice><expan>p<ex>ate</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pac-tilde-pacienc “<choice><expan>pac<ex>ienc</ex></expan><abbr>pac<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pn-tilde-presen “<choice><expan>p<ex>rese</ex>n</expan><abbr>pn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pr-tilde-patr “<choice><expan>p<ex>at</ex>r</expan><abbr>pr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-tilde-pre-br-tilde-presbiteru “<choice><expan>p<ex>res</ex>b<ex>ite</ex>r<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr><am></am>br<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pbr-tilde-presbiteru “<choice><expan>p<ex>res</ex>b<ex>ite</ex>r<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>pbr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pc-tilde-pecca “<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>c<ex>ca</ex></expan><abbr>pc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pcc-tilde-pecc “<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>cc</expan><abbr>pcc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pcc-tilde-peccat “<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>cc<ex>at</ex></expan><abbr>pcc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pcc-tilde-peccatu “<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>cc<ex>atu</ex></expan><abbr>pcc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pecc-tilde-peccat “<choice><expan>pecc<ex>at</ex></expan><abbr>pecc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pecc-tilde-peccatu “<choice><expan>pecc<ex>atu</ex></expan><abbr>pecc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pen-tilde-penitent “<choice><expan>pen<ex>itent</ex></expan><abbr>pen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pn-tilde-penitent “<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>n<ex>itent</ex></expan><abbr>pn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pp-popul “<choice><expan>p<ex>o</ex>p<ex>ul</ex></expan><abbr>pp</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ppl-tilde-popul “<choice><expan>p<ex>o</ex>p<ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>ppl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ppl-tilde-populu “<choice><expan>p<ex>o</ex>p<ex>u</ex>l<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>ppl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY popl-tilde-popul “<choice><expan>pop<ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>popl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY popl-tilde-populu “<choice><expan>pop<ex>u</ex>l<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>popl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY poi-tilde-posi “<choice><expan>po<ex>s</ex>i</expan><abbr>poi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY poit-tilde-posit “<choice><expan>po<ex>s</ex>it</expan><abbr>poi<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY posso-tilde-possessio “<choice><expan>poss<ex>essi</ex>o</expan><abbr>posso<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY posso-tilde-possession “<choice><expan>poss<ex>essi</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>posso<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pra-tilde-presta “<choice><expan>pr<ex>est</ex>a</expan><abbr>pr<am>̃</am>a</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pronosti-p-barré-pronostican “<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>nosti<ex>can</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝓ</am>nosti</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY proph-tilde-prophet “<choice><expan>proph<ex>et</ex></expan><abbr>proph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY proph-p-barré-tilde-prophet “<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>ph<ex>et</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝓ</am>ph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ps-tilde-potens “<choice><expan>p<ex>oten</ex>s</expan><abbr>ps<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pu-tilde-pueru “<choice><expan>pu<ex>ueru</ex></expan><abbr>pu<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY rc-tilde-recti “<choice><expan>r<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex>i</expan><abbr>rc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ro-tilde-ratio “<choice><expan>r<ex>ati</ex>o</expan><abbr>ro<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ro-tilde-ratione “<choice><expan>r<ex>ati</ex>o<ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr>ro<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sab-tilde-sabba “<choice><expan>sab<ex>ba</ex></expan><abbr>sab<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sacr-tilde-sacramentu “<choice><expan>sacr<ex>amentu</ex></expan><abbr>sacr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sap-tilde-sapient “<choice><expan>sap<ex>ent</ex></expan><abbr>sap<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sb-tilde-subiect “<choice><expan>s<ex>u</ex>b<ex>iect</ex></expan><abbr>sb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sb-tilde-subiectu “<choice><expan>s<ex>u</ex>b<ex>iectu</ex></expan><abbr>sb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sb-tilde-substanti “<choice><expan>s<ex>u</ex>b<ex>stanti</ex></expan><abbr>sb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY scl-tilde-secul “<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>scl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY scl-tilde-seculu “<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>u</ex>l<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>scl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sc-tilde-sanct “<choice><expan>s<ex>an</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>sc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sc-tilde-sanctu “<choice><expan>s<ex>an</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>sc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sci-tilde-scienti “<choice><expan>sci<ex>enti</ex></expan><abbr>sci<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sigca-tilde-significa “<choice><expan>sig<ex>nifi</ex>ca</expan><abbr>sigc<am>̃a</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sil-tilde-simul “<choice><expan>si<ex>mu</ex>l</expan><abbr>sil<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sil-tilde-simil “<choice><expan>si<ex>mi</ex>l</expan><abbr>sil<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sn-tilde-sentent “<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>n<ex>tent</ex></expan><abbr>sn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY spc-tilde-spect “<choice><expan>sp<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>spc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sp-tilde-spirit “<choice><expan>sp<ex>irit</ex></expan><abbr>sp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sp-tilde-spiritu “<choice><expan>sp<ex>iritu</ex></expan><abbr>sp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY spa-tilde-specia “<choice><expan>sp<ex>eci</ex>a</expan><abbr>spa<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY steph-tilde-stephan “<choice><expan>steph<ex>an</ex></expan><abbr>steph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sub-tilde-substant “<choice><expan>sub<ex>stant</ex></expan><abbr>sub<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY test-testament “<choice><expan>t<ex>estament</ex></expan><abbr>test<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY test-tilde-testimoniu “<choice><expan>test<ex>imoniu</ex></expan><abbr>test<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY testio-tilde-testimoni “<choice><expan>testi<ex>m</ex>o<ex>ni</ex></expan><abbr>testio<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tp-tilde-tempor “<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>or</ex></expan><abbr>tp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tp-p-barré-tempor “<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>or</ex></expan><abbr>t<am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tp-tilde-temp “<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p</expan><abbr>tp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tp-tilde-tempo “<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>o</ex></expan><abbr>tp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tp-tilde-tempu “<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>tp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ul-tilde-uel “<choice><expan>u<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>ul<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ur-tilde-uestr “<choice><expan>u<ex>est</ex>r</expan><abbr>ur<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ur-tilde-uester “<choice><expan>u<ex>este</ex>r</expan><abbr>ur<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ur-tilde-uestru “<choice><expan>u<ex>est</ex>ru</expan><abbr>ur<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY xp-tilde-Christ “<choice><expan>Chr<ex>ist</ex></expan><abbr>xp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY xp-tilde-Christu “<choice><expan>Chr<ex>istu</ex></expan><abbr>xp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– SANS RADICAL –>
<!ENTITY aid-i-suscrit-aliud “<choice><expan>a<ex>l</ex>i<ex>u</ex>d</expan><abbr>a<am>ͥ</am>d</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY alla-tilde-alleluia “<choice><expan>all<ex>elui</ex>a</expan><abbr>all<am>̃</am>a</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dd-tilde-dauid “<choice><expan>d<ex>aui</ex>d</expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dnr-tilde-dicuntur “<choice><expan>d<ex>icu</ex>n<ex>tu</ex>r</expan><abbr>dnr<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dr-tilde-dicitur “<choice><expan>d<ex>icitu</ex>r</expan><abbr>dr<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY hc-tilde-hunc “<choice><expan>h<ex>un</ex>c</expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am>c</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ierlm-tilde-ierusalem “<choice><expan>ier<ex>usa</ex>l<ex>e</ex>m</expan><abbr>ierl<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ihrlm-tilde-ierusalem “<choice><expan>ier<ex>usa</ex>l<ex>e</ex>m</expan><abbr>ihrl<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY iherlm-tilde-ierusalem “<choice><expan>ier<ex>usa</ex>l<ex>e</ex>m</expan><abbr>ihrl<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY irlm-tilde-ierusalem “<choice><expan>i<ex>e</ex>r<ex>usa</ex>l<ex>e</ex>m</expan><abbr>irl<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY isrl-tilde-israhel “<choice><expan>isr<ex>ahe</ex>l</expan><abbr>isr<am>̃</am>l</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY kl-tilde-kalendas “<choice><expan>k<ex>a</ex>l<ex>endas</ex></expan><abbr>kl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY kls-tilde-kalendas “<choice><expan>k<ex>a</ex>l<ex>enda</ex>s</expan><abbr>kls<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY loqr-tilde-loquitur “<choice><expan>loq<ex>uitu</ex>r</expan><abbr>loq<am>̃</am>r</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY mli-tilde-mediolani “<choice><expan>m<ex>edio</ex>l<ex>an</ex>i</expan><abbr>mli<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pphis-p-barré-tilde-prophetis “<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>ph<ex>et</ex>is</expan><abbr>ꝓph<am>̃</am>is</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sabbi-tilde-sabbati “<choice><expan>sabb<ex>at</ex>i</expan><abbr>sabb<am>̃</am>i</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sabbo-tilde-sabbato “<choice><expan>sabb<ex>at</ex>o</expan><abbr>sabb<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ur-tilde-uidetur “<choice><expan>u<ex>idetu</ex>r</expan><abbr>ur<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY scr-tilde-secreta “<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>cr<ex>eta</ex></expan><abbr>sc<am>̃</am>r</abbr></choice>”>

<!– PARTIE DE MOT –>
<!– terminaison: par contraction –>
<!ENTITY bo-tilde-butio “<choice><expan>b<ex>uti</ex>o</expan><abbr>bo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY br-tilde-bitur “<choice><expan>b<ex>itu</ex>r</expan><abbr>br<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY bt-tilde-bunt “<choice><expan>b<ex>un</ex>t</expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY c-tilde-sp-ur-ciatur “<choice><expan>c<ex>iatur</ex></expan><abbr>c<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cr-tilde-citur “<choice><expan>c<ex>itu</ex>r</expan><abbr>cr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dr-tilde-ditur “<choice><expan>d<ex>itu</ex>r</expan><abbr>dr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dr-tilde-sp-ur-ditur “<choice><expan>d<ex>itu</ex>r</expan><abbr>dr<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY dt-tilde-dunt “<choice><expan>d<ex>un</ex>t</expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lo-tilde-latio “<choice><expan>l<ex>ati</ex>o</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lr-tilde-liter “<choice><expan>l<ex>ite</ex>r</expan><abbr>lr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY lr-tilde-iliter “<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>l<ex>ite</ex>r</expan><abbr>lr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-i-suscrit-r-quitur “<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>i<ex>tu</ex>r</expan><abbr>q<am>ͥ</am>r</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY rt-tilde-runt “<choice><expan>r<ex>un</ex>t</expan><abbr>r<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY st-tilde-sunt “<choice><expan>s<ex>un</ex>t</expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>”>
<!– terminaison: par suspension –>
<!ENTITY n-tilde-ensis “<choice><expan><ex>e</ex>n<ex>sis</ex></expan><abbr>n<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-abitur “<choice><expan><ex>abitur</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-bant “<choice><expan><ex>bant</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-cerunt “<choice><expan><ex>cerunt</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-dabant “<choice><expan><ex>dabant</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-dabit “<choice><expan><ex>dabit</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-dasti “<choice><expan><ex>dasti</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-ducaui “<choice><expan><ex>ducaui</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-nauerunt “<choice><expan><ex>nauerunt</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-os “<choice><expan><ex>os</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-ras “<choice><expan><ex>ras</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-rendi “<choice><expan><ex>rendi</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-sereberis “<choice><expan><ex>sereberis</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-ses “<choice><expan><ex>ses</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tabuntur “<choice><expan><ex>tabuntur</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tas “<choice><expan><ex>tas</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tate “<choice><expan><ex>tate</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tauerunt “<choice><expan><ex>tauerunt</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tionis “<choice><expan><ex>tionis</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-titia “<choice><expan><ex>titia</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-uat “<choice><expan><ex>uat</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-uiant “<choice><expan><ex>uiant</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-anensis “<choice><expan><ex>anensis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ate “<choice><expan><ex>ate</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-atorum “<choice><expan><ex>atorum</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-audi “<choice><expan><ex>audi</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-nauit “<choice><expan><ex>nauit</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-elio “<choice><expan><ex>elio</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ensem “<choice><expan><ex>ensem</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ensi “<choice><expan><ex>ensi</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ensis “<choice><expan><ex>ensis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-entum “<choice><expan><ex>entum</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-erit “<choice><expan><ex>erit</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-esis “<choice><expan><ex>esis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-it “<choice><expan><ex>it</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-i “<choice><expan><ex>i</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-il “<choice><expan><ex>il</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-inasti “<choice><expan><ex>inasti</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-inatur “<choice><expan><ex>inatur</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-is “<choice><expan><ex>is</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ium “<choice><expan><ex>ium</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-onensem “<choice><expan><ex>onensem</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-rum “<choice><expan><ex>rum</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-ar “<choice><expan><ex>ar</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-sis “<choice><expan><ex>sis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ta “<choice><expan><ex>ta</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-uam “<choice><expan><ex>uam</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-uis “<choice><expan><ex>uis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ut “<choice><expan><ex>ut</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-unt “<choice><expan><ex>unt</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-uum “<choice><expan><ex>uum</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-sp-ur-tur “<choice><expan><ex>tur</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– à l’intérieur –>
<!ENTITY cco-tilde-cacion “<choice><expan>c<ex>a</ex>c<ex>i</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>cco<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY co-tilde-catio “<choice><expan>c<ex>ati</ex>o</expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY co-tilde-cio “<choice><expan>c<ex>i</ex>o</expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY co-tilde-cion “<choice><expan>c<ex>i</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY co-tilde-cione “<choice><expan>c<ex>i</ex>o<ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY co-tilde-ctio “<choice><expan>c<ex>ti</ex>o</expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY to-tilde-tio “<choice><expan>t<ex>i</ex>o</expan><abbr>to<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY to-tilde-tion “<choice><expan>t<ex>i</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>to<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBES, PRONOMS –>
<!– par suspension –>
<!ENTITY a-tilde-at “<choice><expan>a<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-tilde-autem “<choice><expan>a<ex>utem</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY an-tilde-ante “<choice><expan>an<ex>te</ex></expan><abbr>an<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY at-tilde-autem “<choice><expan>a<ex>u</ex>t<ex>em</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY au-tilde-autem “<choice><expan>au<ex>tem</ex></expan><abbr>au<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY aut-tilde-autem “<choice><expan>aut<ex>em</ex></expan><abbr>aut<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY bn-tilde-bene “<choice><expan>b<ex>e</ex>n<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>bn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ei-tilde-enim “<choice><expan>e<ex>n</ex>i<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr>ei<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hoc “<choice><expan>h<ex>oc</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-tilde-me “<choice><expan>m<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nb-tilde-nobis “<choice><expan>n<ex>o</ex>b<ex>is</ex></expan><abbr>nb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pp-tilde-propter “<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>p<ex>ter</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>̃</am>p</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pp-barré-propter “<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>p<ex>ter</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-barré-pro-tilde-propter “<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>p<ex>ter</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝓ</am>p<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qn-tilde-quando “<choice><expan>q<ex>ua</ex>n<ex>do</ex></expan><abbr>qn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qn-tilde-quoniam “<choice><expan>q<ex>uo</ex>n<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr>qn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY scd-tilde-secundum “<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>un</ex>d<ex>um</ex></expan><abbr>scd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY scd-tilde-secundu “<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>un</ex>d<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>scd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY scd-tilde-secund “<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>un</ex>d</expan><abbr>scd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sp-p-barré-semper “<choice><expan>s<ex>em</ex>p<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-tilde-sua “<choice><expan>s<ex>ua</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-tilde-suo “<choice><expan>s<ex>uo</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– par contraction –>
<!ENTITY io-tilde-ideo “<choice><expan>i<ex>de</ex>o</expan><abbr>io<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY nc-tilde-nunc “<choice><expan>n<ex>un</ex>c</expan><abbr>nc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qd-tilde-quod “<choice><expan>q<ex>uo</ex>d</expan><abbr>q<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qm-tilde-quem “<choice><expan>q<ex>ue</ex>m</expan><abbr>q<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qm-tilde-quantum “<choice><expan>q<ex>uantu</ex>m</expan><abbr>q<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qm-tilde-quoniam “<choice><expan>q<ex>uonia</ex>m</expan><abbr>qm<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qmo-tilde-quomodo “<choice><expan>q<ex>uo</ex>m<ex>od</ex>o</expan><abbr>qm<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qs-tilde-quatenus “<choice><expan>q<ex>uatenu</ex>s</expan><abbr>qs<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY quo-tilde-quomodo “<choice><expan>qu<ex>omod</ex>o</expan><abbr>qu<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sb-tilde-sub “<choice><expan>s<ex>u</ex>b</expan><abbr>sb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY sr-tilde-super “<choice><expan>s<ex>upe</ex>r</expan><abbr>sr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tc-tilde-tunc “<choice><expan>t<ex>un</ex>c</expan><abbr>tc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tm-tilde-tantum “<choice><expan>t<ex>antu</ex>m</expan><abbr>tm<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tn-tilde-tamen “<choice><expan>t<ex>ame</ex>n</expan><abbr>tn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY uo-tilde-uero “<choice><expan>u<ex>er</ex>o</expan><abbr>uo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– ABREVIATIONS PAR LETTRES SUSCRITES –>
<!– mot entier –>
<!ENTITY an-a-suscrit-anathomia “<choice><expan>an<ex>athomi</ex>a</expan><abbr>an<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY c-us-cuius “<choice><expan>c<ex>uius</ex></expan><abbr>c<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY con-tironien-a-suscrit-contra “<choice><expan>con<ex>tr</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY con-tironien-v-suscrit-conspectu “<choice><expan>con<ex>spect</ex>u</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am><am>ͮ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-us-eius “<choice><expan>e<ex>ius</ex></expan><abbr>e<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ecc-a-suscrit-ecclesia “<choice><expan>ecc<ex>lesi</ex>a</expan><abbr>ecc<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ecc-e-suscrit-ecclesie “<choice><expan>ecc<ex>lesi</ex>e</expan><abbr>ecc<am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY h-us-huius “<choice><expan>h<ex>ui</ex>us</expan><abbr>h<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY hi-us-huius “<choice><expan>h<ex>ui</ex>us</expan><abbr>hi<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY hi-us-huiusmodi “<choice><expan>h<ex>ui</ex>us<ex>mod</ex>i</expan><abbr>hi<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-d-suscrit-illud “<choice><expan>i<ex>llu</ex>d</expan><abbr>i<am>ͩ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ier-m-suscrit-ierusalem “<choice><expan>ier<ex>usale</ex>m</expan><abbr>ier<am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY g-i-suscrit-igitur “<choice><expan>ig<ex>itur</ex></expan><abbr>g<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY g-o-suscrit-ergo “<choice><expan><ex>er</ex>go</expan><abbr>g<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY g-us-gnus “<choice><expan>g<ex>n</ex>us</expan><abbr>g<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ig-ur-igitur “<choice><expan>ig<ex>uitur</ex></expan><abbr>ig<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY loq-ur-loquitur “<choice><expan>loq<ex>uitur</ex></expan><abbr>loq<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-o-suscrit-modo “<choice><expan>m<ex>od</ex>o</expan><abbr>m<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-a-suscrit-materia “<choice><expan>m<ex>ateri</ex>a</expan><abbr>m<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY n-o-suscrit-nocturno “<choice><expan>n<ex>octurn</ex>o</expan><abbr>n<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-a-suscrit-praedica “<choice><expan>p<ex>raedic</ex>a</expan><abbr>p<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-a-suscrit-praeterea “<choice><expan>p<ex>raetere</ex>a</expan><abbr>p<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-ae-suscrits-publicae “<choice><expan>p<ex>ublic</ex>ae</expan><abbr>p<hi rend=’sup’>ae</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pin-i-suscrit-princeps “<choice><expan>p<ex>r</ex>in<ex>ceps</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>ͥ</am>n</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-o-suscrit-primo “<choice><expan>p<ex>rim</ex>o</expan><abbr>p<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-t-suscrit-potest “<choice><expan>p<ex>otes</ex>t</expan><abbr>p<am>ͭ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-us-pos “<choice><expan>p<ex>os</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-us-post “<choice><expan>p<ex>ost</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pp-a-suscrit-papa “<choice><expan>p<ex>a</ex>pa</expan><abbr>pp<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY pp-e-suscrit-pape “<choice><expan>p<ex>a</ex>pe</expan><abbr>pp<am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-m-suscrit-quoniam “<choice><expan>q<ex>uonia</ex>m</expan><abbr>q<am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qn-o-suscrit-quando “<choice><expan>q<ex>ua</ex>n<ex>do</ex></expan><abbr>qn<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY t-i-suscrit-t-i-suscrit-tituli “<choice><expan>tit<ex>ul</ex>i</expan><abbr>t<am>ͥ</am>t<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY u-o-suscrit-uero “<choice><expan>u<ex>er</ex>o</expan><abbr>u<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY x-i-suscrit-Christi “<choice><expan>Ch<ex>rist</ex>i</expan><abbr>x<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY x-s-suscrit-Christus “<choice><expan>Ch<ex>ristu</ex>s</expan><abbr>x<am>ᷤ</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– orig/reg lettres suscrites pour elles-mêmes –>
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-a “<choice><reg>a</reg><orig>ͣ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY c-suscrit-c “<choice><reg>c</reg><orig>ͨ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-suscrit-d “<choice><reg>d</reg><orig>ͩ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-e “<choice><reg>e</reg><orig>ͤ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-i “<choice><reg>i</reg><orig>ͥ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-suscrit-l “<choice><reg>l</reg><orig>ᷝ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-suscrit-m “<choice><reg>m</reg><orig>ͫ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-o “<choice><reg>o</reg><orig>ͦ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY r-suscrit-r “<choice><reg><ex>r</ex></reg><orig>ͬ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-suscrit-s “<choice><reg>s</reg><orig>ᷤ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY t-suscrit-t “<choice><reg>t</reg><orig>ͭ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY u-suscrit-u “<choice><reg>u</reg><orig>ͧ</orig></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-vertical “<choice><reg>m</reg><orig>m</orig></choice>”>

<!– lettres suscrites –>
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-ca “<choice><expan>ca</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-cia “<choice><expan>cia</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-ma “<choice><expan><ex>m</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-na “<choice><expan><ex>n</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-ra “<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-ta “<choice><expan><ex>t</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-tia “<choice><expan><ex>t</ex>ia</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-ua “<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY c-suscrit-ec “<choice><expan><ex>e</ex>c</expan><abbr><am>ͨ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY c-suscrit-ic “<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>c</expan><abbr><am>ͨ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-me “<choice><expan><ex>m</ex>e</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-ne “<choice><expan><ex>n</ex>e</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-re “<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>e</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-ste “<choice><expan>ste</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-ue “<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>e</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-hri “<choice><expan><ex>hr</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-bi “<choice><expan><ex>b</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ibi “<choice><expan><ex>ib</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ic “<choice><expan>i<ex>c</ex></expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ichi “<choice><expan><ex>ich</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ici “<choice><expan><ex>ic</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ir “<choice><expan>i<ex>r</ex></expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-isi “<choice><expan><ex>is</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-mi “<choice><expan><ex>m</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ni “<choice><expan><ex>n</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-pri “<choice><expan><ex>pr</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ri “<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ui “<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-suscrit-ium “<choice><expan><ex>iu</ex>m</expan><abbr><am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-suscrit-um “<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>m</expan><abbr><am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY n-suscrit-n “<choice><expan>n</expan><abbr><am>ᷠ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-esimo “<choice><expan><ex>esim</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-go “<choice><expan><ex>g</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-io “<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-no “<choice><expan><ex>n</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-ro “<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-tio “<choice><expan><ex>ti</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-uo “<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY r-suscrit-ir “<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>r</expan><abbr><am>ͬ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY r-suscrit-tur “<choice><expan><ex>tu</ex>r</expan><abbr><am>ͬ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-suscrit-os “<choice><expan><ex>o</ex>s</expan><abbr><am>ᷤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY t-suscrit-erit “<choice><expan><ex>eri</ex>t</expan><abbr><am>ͭ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY t-suscrit-it “<choice><expan><ex>it</ex></expan><abbr><am>ͭ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY t-suscrit-ut “<choice><expan><ex>ut</ex></expan><abbr><am>ͭ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY u-suscrit-ru “<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>u</expan><abbr><am>ͧ</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– ABREVIATIONS PAR SIGNES SPECIAUX –>
<!ENTITY et-perluette “<choice><expan>et</expan><abbr><am>&amp;</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY et-perluette-tilde-etiam “<choice><expan>et<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr><am>&amp;</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY et-tironien “<choice><expan>et</expan><abbr><am>⁊</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY et-tironien-barré “<choice><expan>et</expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY et-tironien-tilde-etiam “<choice><expan>et<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr><am>⁊</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY et-tironien-barré-tilde-etiam “<choice><expan>et<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr><am></am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY co-tironien “<choice><expan>co</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY con-tironien “<choice><expan>con</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY com-tironien “<choice><expan>com</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY com-tironien-commen “<choice><expan>com<ex>en</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cum-tironien “<choice><expan>cum</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY us-base “<choice><expan>us</expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– P et Q –>
<!ENTITY p-barré-per “<choice><expan>p<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-barré-peru “<choice><expan>p<ex>eru</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-barré-par “<choice><expan>p<ex>ar</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-barré-por “<choice><expan>p<ex>or</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-barré-pra “<choice><expan>p<ex>ra</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-barré-pro “<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝓ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY P-barré-Pro “<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex></expan><abbr><am>Ꝓ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-tilde-pre “<choice><expan>p<ex>re</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY p-tilde-preter “<choice><expan>p<ex>reter</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q2-quia “<choice><expan>q<ex>uia</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-barré-qui “<choice><expan>q<ex>ui</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝗ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY Q-barré-Qui “<choice><expan>Q<ex>ui</ex></expan><abbr><am>Ꝙ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY Q-barré-Quod “<choice><expan>Q<ex>uod</ex></expan><abbr><am>Ꝙ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY Q-barré-a-suscrit-Quam “<choice><expan>Q<ex>u</ex>a<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am>Ꝙ</am><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-barré-a-suscrit-quam “<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>a<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-barré-a-suscrit-quan “<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>a<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-barré-e-suscrit-quem “<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>e<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-barré-e-suscrit-quen “<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>e<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-barré-diagonale-quod “<choice><expan>q<ex>uod</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-barré-diagonale-tilde-quem “<choice><expan>q<ex>uem</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-tilde-que “<choice><expan>q<ex>ue</ex></expan><abbr>q<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY qi-a-suscrit-quasi “<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>a<ex>s</ex>i</expan><abbr>qi<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– SIGNES D’ABREVIATION –>

<!– TILDE –>
<!ENTITY tilde-a “<choice><expan><ex>a</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-am “<choice><expan><ex>am</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-an “<choice><expan><ex>an</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-i “<choice><expan><ex>i</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-is “<choice><expan><ex>is</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-iu “<choice><expan><ex>iu</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-m “<choice><expan><ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-mi “<choice><expan><ex>mi</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-n “<choice><expan><ex>n</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-na “<choice><expan><ex>na</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-ne “<choice><expan><ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-ni “<choice><expan><ex>ni</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-o “<choice><expan><ex>o</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-on “<choice><expan><ex>on</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-u “<choice><expan><ex>u</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-um “<choice><expan><ex>um</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-un “<choice><expan><ex>un</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-e “<choice><expan><ex>e</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-em “<choice><expan><ex>em</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-en “<choice><expan><ex>en</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-in “<choice><expan><ex>in</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-men “<choice><expan><ex>men</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-min “<choice><expan><ex>min</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-er “<choice><expan><ex>er</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-eru “<choice><expan><ex>eru</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-ir “<choice><expan><ex>ir</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-ra “<choice><expan><ex>ra</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-re “<choice><expan><ex>re</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-r “<choice><expan><ex>r</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-er “<choice><expan><ex>er</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-eru “<choice><expan><ex>eru</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-ir “<choice><expan><ex>ir</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-re “<choice><expan><ex>re</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-ar “<choice><expan><ex>ar</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-or “<choice><expan><ex>or</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-r “<choice><expan><ex>r</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-ur “<choice><expan><ex>ur</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-r “<choice><expan><ex>r</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>”><!ENTITY tilde-sp-us “<choice><expan><ex>us</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-s “<choice><expan><ex>s</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-us-neus “<choice><expan><ex>neus</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– LE POINT ET SON EVOLUTION –>
<!ENTITY b-signe-double-bus “<choice><expan>b<ex>us</ex></expan><abbr>b<am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY b-signe-simple-bus “<choice><expan>b<ex>us</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-signe-double-libet “<choice><expan>l<ex>ibet</ex></expan><abbr>l<am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-signe-double-licet “<choice><expan>l<ex>icet</ex></expan><abbr>l<am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY n-signe-double-neque “<choice><expan>n<ex>eque</ex></expan><abbr>n<am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-signe-simple-que “<choice><expan>q<ex>ue</ex></expan><abbr>q<am>.</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY q-signe-double-que “<choice><expan>q<ex>ue</ex></expan><abbr>q<am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY r-rond-barré-rum “<choice><expan>r<ex>um</ex></expan><abbr>ꝝ</abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-signe-double-sed “<choice><expan>s<ex>ed</ex></expan><abbr>s<am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY u-signe-double-uidelicet “<choice><expan>u<ex>idelicet</ex></expan><abbr>u<am></am></abbr></choice>”>

<!ENTITY signe-double-tilde-est “<choice><expan><ex>est</ex></expan><abbr><am></am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!ENTITY susp-signe-double-e “<choice><expan><ex>e</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-double-et “<choice><expan><ex>et</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-double-m “<choice><expan><ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY susp-signe-double-que “<choice><expan><ex>que</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– LETTRES BARREES –>
<!ENTITY s-barré-ser “<choice><expan>s<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-barré-secundum “<choice><expan>s<ex>ecundum</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-barré-secundu “<choice><expan>s<ex>ecundu</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY s-barré-secund “<choice><expan>s<ex>ecund</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– EX LETTRES BARREES = LETTRE + TILDE –>
<!ENTITY b-tilde-ber “<choice><expan>b<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY b-tilde-bis “<choice><expan>b<ex>is</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-de “<choice><expan>d<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY d-tilde-ud “<choice><ex>u</ex><expan>d</expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hec “<choice><expan>h<ex>ec</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-al “<choice><expan><ex>a</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-el “<choice><expan><ex>e</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-il “<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-ili “<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>l<ex>i</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-le “<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-ul “<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-ulu “<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>l<ex>u</ex>u</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-lati “<choice><expan>l<ex>ati</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-lis “<choice><expan>l<ex>is</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-lur “<choice><expan>l<ex>ur</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-uel “<choice><expan><ex>ue</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-liter “<choice><expan>l<ex>iter</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY l-tilde-iliter “<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>l<ex>liter</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– ABREVIATIONS PAR GRAPHISME –>
<!ENTITY H-entre-points-enim “<choice><expan><ex>enim</ex></expan><abbr><am>·</am>H<am>·</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY est-point-trait-point “<choice><expan><ex>est</ex></expan><abbr><am>÷</am></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY i-entre-points-idest “<choice><expan>i<ex>dest</ex></expan><abbr><am>.i.</am></abbr></choice>”>

<!– VS –>

<!– TERMINAISONS ET LETTRES ADSCRITES –>
<!ENTITY ca-sup-blica “<choice><expan><ex>bli</ex>ca</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>ca</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ca-sup-lica “<choice><expan><ex>li</ex>ca</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>ca</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ce-sup-lice “<choice><expan><ex>li</ex>ce</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>ce</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY cia-sup-cancia “<choice><expan><ex>can</ex>cia</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>cia</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY m-sup-nium “<choice><expan><ex>niu</ex>m</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>m</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY onum-sup-tionum “<choice><expan><ex>ti</ex>onum</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>onum</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY ter-sup-lariter “<choice><expan><ex>lari</ex>ter</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>ter</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tus-sup-blitus “<choice><expan><ex>bli</ex>tus</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>tus</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY tum-sup-tatum “<choice><expan><ex>ta</ex>tum</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>tum</hi></abbr></choice>”>
<!ENTITY rium-sup-larium “<choice><expan><ex>la</ex>rium</expan><abbr><hi rend=’sup’>rium</hi></abbr></choice>”>

 

Modi scribendi duo

Saint-Omer, Bibl. aggl., ms. 313, claie

Il y a tout juste six ans, je donnai une communication à Namur sous le titre « ‘In varietate concordia’ : les traditions livresque et cursive au XIIe siècle » dans le cadre du cycle de conférences organisées par le centre de recherche « Pratiques médiévales de l’écrit » (cf. programme). Le titre, pour lequel j’ai cédé à la mode du surtitre latin, évoquait la théorisation de deux modes d’écriture et j’ai présenté les problèmes d’attribution, de datation et d’identification des mains par-delà la divergence de ces modes. Depuis, des articles et études très stimulants ont paru, notamment les définitions du polygraphisme dans T . De Robertis, « Una mano tante scritture. Problemi di metodo nell’identificazione degli autografi », dans Medieval Autograph Manuscripts. Proceedings of the XVIIth Colloquium of the Comité International de Paléographie Latine, held in Ljubljana, 7-10 September 2010, édité par Nataša Golob, (Bibliologia 36), Turnhout: Brepols, 2013, p. 17‑38.

Au cours d’un séjour de recherche à Saint-Omer dans le cadre du projet collaboratif Saint-Bertin centre culturel du  VIIe au XVIIIe siècle : constitution, conservation, diffusion, utilisation du savoir, avec des collègues et étudiants, j’ai eu la joie d’étudier de plus près le manuscrit 313 de la Bibliothèque d’agglomération, déjà numérisé par l’IRHT et accessible dans la BVMM.

Et là, je trouve un fragment d’une Ars dictandi dont le copiste change son écriture pour passer, si j’ose dire, au style direct et donner le texte d’un acte. Il emploie donc une Textualis libraria pour copier l’ouvrage et les conseils donnés au lecteur, mais ce que l’on pourrait appeler dans le domaine livresque une Cursiva antiquior pour le texte des actes. Il s’agit d’une écriture diplomatique contemporaine et d’une preuve inattendue de la conscience graphique du copiste.

Compte-rendu final du projet ORIFLAMMS / ORIFLAMMS Final report

Lien vers le rapport complet / Link to the full report:
D. Stutzmann, Projet ANR-12-CORP-0010 Oriflamms: Compte-rendu de fin de projet, octobre 2016, 31 p. [en ligne] http://oriflamms.hypotheses.org/files/2017/04/Oriflamms-Compte-rendu-final.pdf

English version below

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L’écriture du Moyen Âge : un objet sous le regard croisé des Humanités et des Sciences de l’ingénieur

 Comprendre les écritures dans une approche transdisciplinaire

Le projet ORIFLAMMS (Ontology Research, Image Features, Letterform Analysis on Multilingual Medieval Scripts) a rassemblé trois laboratoires SHS, trois laboratoires STIC et une société industrielle pour étudier les écritures du Moyen Âge et le multilinguisme médiéval dans une approche interdisciplinaire et novatrice.

À la rencontre d’enjeux épistémologiques, scientifiques, technologiques, industriels et sociétaux, ORIFLAMMS analyse l’évolution des systèmes et formes graphiques des écritures d’un temps long (le Moyen Âge) selon leur contexte de production (écritures usuelles, diplomatiques ou livresques) et leur langue (latin ou vernaculaire). Il établit un Corpus de référence, une ontologie des formes et une analyse des structures graphiques des écritures pour passer d’une approche linéaire (textuelle) à une approche visuelle pour répondre aux interrogations des linguistes, historiens des écritures (paléographes, diplomatistes et épigraphistes) et chercheurs industriels en reconnaissance des formes. Il développe à cette fin des outils d’analyse d’image innovants et open source pour l’analyse graphique et l’analyse textuelle.

Il doit permettre aux historiens et linguistes de comprendre les évolutions de l’écriture dans l’environnement multilingue du Moyen Âge ; offrir à l’industrie des technologies nouvelles pour l’analyse des écritures manuscrites et leur utilisation dans un contexte numérique. À l’avenir, il pourra aussi enrichir l’approche des processus scripturaux des anthropologues, pédagogues et neurocognitivistes.

Élaboration de corpus, intelligence artificielle, vision par ordinateur et expertise humaine

L’étude des écritures du Moyen Âge selon leurs différents contextes et langues s’est fondée sur une association étroite entre les différents acteurs.

Un premier volet consistait en l’élaboration d’un Corpus de référence qui dépasse en taille et en diversité, tous ceux utilisés jusqu’à présent et qui couvre diverses situations d’écritures au Moyen Âge : plus de 250 inscriptions en latin et en français, de 100 chartes et documents, près de 200 pages de livres latins, 130 pages d’un manuscrit français (Queste del saint Graal), et 400 pages de registres de chancellerie.

Un deuxième volet consistait à développer des outils pour « aligner », c’est-à-dire associer de façon fine le texte et l’image, afin de permettre une étude conjointe du texte et de l’image du texte avec ses phénomènes graphiques (abréviations, jeux de lettres, présence de majuscules ou de ponctuation). Pour ce faire, deux méthodes ont été mises en œuvre. La première méthode proposait une analyse de l’image sans apprentissage préalable (« learning free ») en reposant sur un code d’analyse des caractères écrits ; elle a été intégrée dans un logiciel open source publié par le consortium du projet. La deuxième méthode se fonde sur de l’intelligence artificielle. Dans cette deuxième méthode, on dit à la machine quelles sont les pages et quel est le texte et elle apprend, toute seule ou presque, comment lire et associer les différents pixels à des lettres.

Enfin, le troisième volet comprenait la validation et l’analyse des résultats des machines par les « humains », à la fois pour identifier les forces et faiblesses des logiciels utilisés et pour alimenter l’expertise historique.

Résultats majeurs

Les résultats obtenus se répartissent en six catégories : (1°) Corpus de référence ; (2°) Définition du format ; (3°) Livrables logiciels ; (4°) Alignements texte-image ; (5°) Analyse paléographique (SHS/STIC) ; (6°) Réflexion sur l’interdisciplinarité.

Le Corpus de référence dépasse en taille et en diversité les données utilisées jusqu’ici et a été publié dans un format interopérable qui pourra être utilisé à l’avenir par des chercheurs de tous horizons (https://github.com/oriflamms). Les partenaires ont amélioré des logiciels qui existaient déjà, mais ils ont aussi publié un logiciel open source (https://github.com/Liris-Pleiad/oriflamms) qui pourra être intégré par des grandes bibliothèques numériques. Les alignements texte-image réalisés par l’intelligence artificielle sont les meilleurs actuellement publiés et permettront à d’autres chercheurs d’entraîner leurs machines pour aller plus rapidement vers une lecture assistée par ordinateur. Au cours de ce projet, ces alignements ont déjà permis de grandes avancées dans l’analyse des différentes formes de lettres au cours du temps, tout en enrichissant la réflexion sur la recherche transdisciplinaire, tant à l’intérieur du consortium du projet que lors de l’organisation de séminaires internationaux, qui ont mis à jour, de façon nouvelle, des éléments cruciaux, tels qu’une correcte identification des partenaires, de leurs rôles, de leur degré d’expertise, et des processus de construction de la confiance.

Production scientifique

Le projet ORIFLAMMS a développé une production scientifique dans les différents champs où il était actif. Dans le champ épigraphique et paléographique, les principes mêmes du projet ont fait l’objet de publications, mettant dans une perspective nouvelle le phénomène de « canonisation » de l’écriture et l’importance de la variabilité comme critère d’analyse de l’histoire de l’écriture. L’étude de l’espace entre les mots a permis des recherches multi-auteurs à la croisée entre linguistique et paléographie. En analyse d’images, plusieurs articles ont montré les avancées faites pour l’alignement texte-image tant sans apprentissage qu’avec intelligence artificielle. Enfin des publications ont porté sur le travail transdisciplinaire et ses fruits pour les communautés concernées.

Illustration

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Informations factuelles

Le projet Oriflamms est un projet de recherche fondamentale, lié à un développement expérimental, coordonné par l’Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes (CNRS, UPR 841). Il associe aussi une entreprise industrielle A2iA, ainsi que des laboratoires en Sciences humaines (ICAR, CESCM, Centre Jean Mabillon) et en Sciences de l’Ingénieur (LIPADE, LIRIS). Le projet a commencé en février 2013 et a duré 42 mois. Il a bénéficié d’une aide ANR de 241 000 € pour un coût global de l’ordre de 750 000 €.

 

English consolidated abstract

Lien vers le rapport complet / Link to the full report:
D. Stutzmann, Projet ANR-12-CORP-0010 Oriflamms: Compte-rendu de fin de projet, octobre 2016, 31 p. [en ligne] http://oriflamms.hypotheses.org/files/2017/04/Oriflamms-Compte-rendu-final.pdf

Medieval scripts: a Research field for the Humanities and Computer Science

Understanding medieval scripts in a cross-disciplinary approach

The ORIFLAMMS (Ontology Research, Image Features, Letterform Analysis on Multilingual Medieval Scripts) research project gathered three research teams in the Humanities, three labs in Computer Science as well as a private company to analyze the medieval scripts and the medieval multilingualism.

ORIFLAMMS addresses a broad range of issues, ranging from epistemology and science to technology, industry and society, through the analysis of writing systems, their evolution in the long period of the Middle Ages, and their variation according to the production context (daily-life writings, diplomatic and book scripts) and language. It also establishes a Reference corpus, a formal ontology of character forms, and a new way of analyzing graphic structures of scripts in order to move from a linear-textual approach to a visual one. This will, in turn, allow new research results for linguists, historians and industry researchers in computer vision. The large scope of this project give new clues to understand the evolution of scripts in a multilingual environment and to develop technologies to analyze handwritten texts. The deliverables can also be used by anthropologists, pedagogy and neuroscience researchers to enhance their understandings of scriptural processes.

Corpus, artificial intelligence, computer vision and human expertise.

The research on medieval scripts and their variation according to context and language required a profound collaboration between the different partners.

Firstly, they established a Reference corpus, which is larger and more diverse than the actual standard ones. It represents the different writing situations in the Middle Age: more than 250 French and Latin inscriptions; 100 charters and documents; ca. 200 pages of Latin manuscripts; 130 pages of the French Queste del saint Graal and 400 pages of Chancery registers.

Secondly, they developed new tools to perform the “text-image alignment”, i.e. associate the text and its coordinates on an image at a fine level of granularity so as to allow a joint analysis of the text and its graphical appearance (abbreviations, interlaced letters, capitalization, punctuation). Two different methods were implemented. The first one consists in the coding of written characters and a learning-free image analysis; it is implemented in the open source software that the project consortium published. The second one is based on artificial intelligence and machine learning: given the page images and the text, the machine learns how to read and associate the pixels to letters.

Thirdly, the human experts validated and analyzed the results provided by automated processes, in order to measure the accuracy of machines and nourish the historical study.

Main outputs

The Oriflamms project produced six sorts of outputs: (1) Reference corpus; (2) Format specification; (3) Software; (4) Text-image alignments; (5) Palaeographical analysis (Humanities/Computer Science); (6) Cross-disciplinary methodology.

The Reference corpus outmatches the actual standard corpuses by its size and its diversity. It is published under an interoperable format (https://github.com/oriflamms). The involved teams enhanced already existing software, but also published an open source software (https://github.com/Liris-Pleiad/oriflamms), which larger digital libraries may now integrate in their infrastructure. The alignments provided by the artificial intelligence mechanisms are the best ones actually published and provide the ground-truth to train new machines and progress towards handwritten text recognition for medieval scripts. During this research project, the alignments already allowed for new insights in the analysis of letter shapes and their evolution. At the same time, the different teams reflected on their experiences of cross-disciplinary works and organized international seminars which identified crucial factors for a successful partnership (identifying and defining the roles of partners, assessing their expertise, trust building mechanisms).

 

Scientific outputs

The researchers involved in the ORIFLAMMS project produced scientific outputs in all fields covered by the research project. In epigraphy and palaeography, the core principles of the research were explained by several publications to put in a new perspective the “canonization” process and the variability of script as a major factor to analyze the history of scripts. The study of word spacing was performed and published in multi-authors articles at the crossroads of linguistics and palaeography. In Image analysis, several papers have demonstrated the new advances in text-image alignment (learning free as well as with artificial intelligence). Several research papers give our conclusions on the methodology of cross-disciplinary research and its outcomes in the respective communities.

Facts and figures

The research project Oriflamms is a fundamental research, linked to an experimental software development. It is led by the Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes (CNRS, UPR 841). It gathers a industrial company A2iA as well as public research labs in the Humanities (ICAR, CESCM, Centre Jean Mabillon) and in Computer science (LIPADE, LIRIS). The project started in February 2013 for a 42-months duration. It received a 241 000 € funding from the ANR, for a global cost of around 750 000 €.

Spécification du format XML-TEI pour l’alignement texte-image. 2. Bonnes pratiques d’encodage

Table des matières

1 Objet du présent document
2 Principes
    2.1 Structure générale des documents
    2.2 Format des transcriptions alignable au niveau de mot <text>
3 Éléments de mise en page (page, colonne, ligne)
    3.1 Surfaces
    3.2 Pages
    3.3 Colonnes
    3.4 Lignes
    3.5 Rejets
    3.6 Réclames
    3.7 Titres courants
    3.8 Autres éléments péritextuels (en-tête, pied de page, marge)
4 Mots
5 Abréviations
6 Ponctuations
7 Caractères
    7.1 Structure
    7.2 Identifiants
    7.3 Lettres ramistes
    7.4 Capitalisation
    7.5 Initiales peintes (lettrines)
    7.6 Lettres d’attente
8 Jeux de lettres
    8.1 Définitions et exemples
    8.2 Ligatures et lettres fusionnées
    8.3 Lettres enclavées
    8.4 Lettres suscrites
    8.5 Lettres adscrites
9 Diacritiques, espaces blancs, coupure de mots
    9.1 Diacritiques
    9.2 Espaces blancs (segmentation)
    9.3 Apostrophes (marques d’élision)
    9.4 Marque de coupure de mot
10 Corrections scribales (ajouts, suppressions, interversions)
    10.1 Suppressions
    10.2 Ajouts interlinéaires ou en marge
    10.3 Substitutions
    10.4 Interversions (transpositions)
11 Corrections éditoriales

 

1 Objet du présent document

Ce document est la publication du format XML-TEI utilisé pour l’alignement texte-image et l’annotation des formes par le logiciel Oriflamms.exe . La présente spécification décrit les bonnes pratiques pour l’emploi balises TEI en vue de l’alignement texte image et dans l’annotation des caractères du projet Oriflamms.

Ce document a été rédigé par Alexei Lavrentiev, Yann Leydier etDominique Stutzmann.

Il fait suite à Spécification du format XML-TEI pour l’alignement texte-image. 1. Structure et convention de nommage.
Continuer la lecture de Spécification du format XML-TEI pour l’alignement texte-image. 2. Bonnes pratiques d’encodage

Spécification du format XML-TEI pour l’alignement texte-image. 1. Structure et convention de nommage

1. Objet du présent document

Ce document est la publication du format XML-TEI utilisé pour l’alignement texte-image et l’annotation des formes par le logiciel Oriflamms.exe . La présente spécification décrit l’arborescence des fichiers.

Ce document a été rédigé par Alexei Lavrentiev, Yann Leydier et Dominique Stutzmann

2. Principes

On utilise la méthode d’annotation “débarquée” (stand-off) en 5 parties :

  • la transcription où chaque élément alignable porte un identifiant
  • les zones dans l’image avec leurs coordonnées où chaque porte un identifiant
  • les données de l’alignement reliant les identifiants des éléments de la transcription avec ceux des zones de l’image
  • les annotations portant sur les caractères ou les mots des transcription
  • les données de l’alignement reliant les identifiants des éléments de la transcription avec ceux des annotations

Tous les identifiants sont uniques au sein du corpus.

Chacune de ces parties est stockée dans un (ensemble de) document(s) XML distinct.

Continuer la lecture de Spécification du format XML-TEI pour l’alignement texte-image. 1. Structure et convention de nommage

Oriflamms @Leeds IMC 2016 : blancs entre les mots ; vision par ordinateur ; fouille de données et proportion invariante

L’International Medieval Congress 2016 de Leeds va vers sa fin. De nombreuses communications de grande qualité ont déjà été prononcées dans des sessions toujours plus nombreuses où il est de plus en plus difficile de choisir.

Parmi les “strands” ou sessions auxquels j’ai assistés et liés, voici ceux portant sur les manuscrits, à la paléographie et au numérique (Guiding the Mind of the Beholder: The Materiality of Medieval Texts as Determinant of Its Meaning and Use, sessions 109, 209, 309 ; Digital Methods round table 432, sessions 531, 631, 731 ; The Reception and Evolution of Caroline Minuscule in the Iberian Peninsula 1109, 1209, 1309 ; Stylus as a Paint Brush: Writing and Artistic Creation 1511, 1611) et il m’a été impossible de me rendre à la session de Ben Albritton (1631).

De mon côté, j’ai montré pour Oriflamms comment notre logiciel permet de mesurer objectivement les espaces entre les lettres et entre les mots. En validant la méthode de Paul Saenger (1997) pour évaluer une unité d’espace, je propose de la rapporter à la longueur moyenne d’un caractère (un espace peut être perçu à partir de 2/5e de caractère et il devient clair à 1/2 caractère de longueur). Les espaces varient selon la nature grammaticale des mots et permettent de mettre en lumière une conscience linguistique chez les scripteurs médiévaux.

Au cours de la communication “Le manuscrit Yale, Beinecke Library, MS 625 est-il grand?” de mon collègue Renaud Alexandre de l’IRHT, j’ai pu voir les dimensions de 35000 manuscrits projetés sur une même diapositive. Pour cela, il a utilisé le dump de la Schoenberg database. Cela lui permet de voir, époque par époque, la distribution des dimensions des manuscrits et d’évaluer la grandeur relative d’un livre par époque. Et là, miracle pour moi : j’ai vu la confirmation de ce que j’écrivais en 2002 dans ma thèse des Chartes. Pour l’ensemble du Moyen Âge, il est inutile de classer les manuscrits selon leur “proportion” par rapport à la “proportion invariante (0,707)” comme fait dans les ouvrages fondamentaux de la codicologie quantitative. En effet, la courbe de tendance des dimensions est une droite, mais qui ne passe pas par zéro !

Voici l’extrait concerné de ma thèse de 2002 :

 

1.1.1.1.                           Proportion (Largeur / Hauteur)

Après avoir étudié la taille et la hauteur, il nous faut prendre en considération les rapports des différentes mesures du feuillet, en particulier la largeur et la hauteur. Premier rectangle qui s’offre à l’étude, le feuillet lui-même pourrait porter les « rapports non arbitraires » ou « remarquables » de Tschichold et Gilissen, et manifester des proportions idéales utilisées pour la construction et la mise en page des manuscrits[1]. Exception faite de la proportion invariante de 0,707 utilisée de nos jours pour fabriquer le papier en Europe, tout pliage entraîne un changement de proportion. Selon les formats matériels et les jugements esthétiques des artisans du livre, la proportion peut prendre des valeurs variées.

Pour le scriptorium de Fontenay, le graphique ci-dessous montre une courbe de proportion fortement erratique. De prime abord, il n’apparaît aucune corrélation manifeste entre la taille des manuscrits et la proportion des feuillets. Le graphique représentant le groupe des manuscrits du xiie siècle ne fait pas plus apparaître d’homogénéité que le graphique ci-dessus représentant l’ensemble des manuscrits conservés de la bibliothèque.

 

Néanmoins, il ne faut pas se laisser abuser par cette apparence de répartition arbitraire. En effet, la comparaison des livres produits à Fontenay avec le corpus étudié par F. Bischoff présente un intérêt majeur, en mettant en lumière des différences sensibles dans la répartition des proportions[2].

 

Proportion (largeur / hauteur) Corpus de F. Bischoff Scriptorium de Fontenay
< 0,66 3 mss = 5,4 %
0,66-0,68 10 mss = 12,7 % 9 mss = 16,1 %
0,69-0,71 12 mss = 15,2 % 23 mss = 41,1 %
0,72-0,74 31 mss = 39,2 % 20 mss = 35,7 %
0,75-0,77 15 mss = 19 % 1 ms = 1,8 %
0,78-0,80 7 mss = 8,9 %
0,81-0,83 2 mss = 2,5 %
0,84-0,86 1 ms = 1,3 %
0,87-0,89 1 ms = 1,3 %
Total 79 mss = 100 % 56 mss = 100 %

 

La confrontation des deux corpus permet de tirer une conclusion : ce que l’on interprétait dans le cas de Fontenay comme une courbe erratique ne semblait si peu régulier qu’en raison d’une trop courte vue et de la loupe posée sur un ensemble restreint de manuscrits. Au regard des données présentées dans le tableau ci-dessus, la répartion observable à Fontenay est beaucoup plus resserrée et homogène. Cette comparaison permet de révéler une norme et des pratiques cohérentes dans la production du scriptorium de Fontenay : presque 77 % des livres qui y sont copiés ont une proportion comprise entre 0,69 et 0,74, c’est-à-dire proche de la proportion invariante.

En élargissant encore le champ d’analyse et en confrontant la répartition des proportions avec la taille, il apparaît que le scriptorium de Fontenay inverse complètement les évolutions constatées par E. Ornato pour l’ensemble des manuscrits du xiie siècle et présentées dans le premier graphique ci-dessous[3]. Le profil général montre en effet que les livres avec une proportion inférieure à 0,707 ont presque tous une taille inférieure à 632 mm ; deux forts contingents se trouvant entre les tailles de 382 à 407 mm, puis entre les tailles de 507 à 607 mm. Les livres avec une proportion supérieure à 0,707 voient leur nombre croître progressivement jusqu’à la taille de 632 mm.

E. Ornato, C. Bozzolo, Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au moyen âge : trois essais de codicologie quantitative, Paris : Ed. du c.n.r.s., 1980-1983, t. I, p. 339, graphique F’

Les livres écrits dans le scriptorium de Fontenay présentent une répartition bien distincte, avec une inversion des évolutions décrites ci-dessus. Les manuscrits de petite taille ne sont pas représentés, alors que ceux de proportion supérieure à 0,707 sont nombreux jusqu’à une taille de 601-625 mm, avec un pic important entre 550 et 625 mm. Les volumes avec une proportion inférieure à 0,707 ont une population en croissance et culminent pour les tailles de 601-650 mm. Le phénomène le plus étonnant est la présence de manuscrits d’une proportion inférieure à 0,707 dans les grandes tailles, ainsi que le montre le graphique ci-dessous.
Taille et proportion (12e siècle et Fontenay au 12e siècle)
L’inversion du profil général est, comme la comparaison précédente, d’autant plus intéressante qu’elle met en lumière une singularité, qui, face aux chiffres généraux n’apparaît non plus erratique, mais relevant d’une autre organisation. Les fondements de celle-ci doivent être recherchés dans les canons de la production monastique bourguignonne. Proportion et variance diffèrent d’un scriptorium à l’autre[4]. L’on constate certes une uniformisation des pratiques au xiie siècle dans toute la France du Nord, avec une proportion inférieure en moyenne à 0,707 et une variance très faible, des différences nettes demeurent néanmoins entre les différents scriptoria. À Clairvaux, par exemple, la proportion moyenne est de 0,697 (avec une variance très faible de 0,00083) et, à Cîteaux, la proportion moyenne est de 0,703 (avec une variance de 0,00088)[5]. L’ensemble des livres produits par le scriptorium de Fontenay a une proportion moyenne de 0,704, avec une variance de 0,00075[6]. Ces résultats prouvent à la fois que la proportion n’est pas une norme absolue et qu’elle varie, mais que les variations sont limitées. Plus encore que pour la taille et la hauteur, où l’on constate les effets des contraintes matérielles, mais où le choix esthétique de confectionner des volumes de grand format s’impose, l’étude de la proportion des feuillets montre que le scriptorium de Fontenay a des pratiques homogènes, qui s’insèrent de surcroît dans un contexte esthétique cistercien et place Fontenay dans la mouvance de Cîteaux.

1.1.1.2.                           Hauteur et largeur : une autre approche

Si, au regard de la démonstration précédente, la proportion n’apparaît pas un fait arbitraire, mais le résultat d’une pratique. Nous désirons envisager une autre approche du rapport entre hauteur et largeur. La codicologie quantitative travaille avec la proportion : ainsi en est-il J. P. Gumbert, dans les Mélanges Hellinga[7] ou de G. Guerrini à propos des manuscrits de Pétrarque[8]. J. P. Gumbert affirme, pour commenter sa figure 1 où l’on voit disposés les hauteurs et les largeurs des manuscrits :

« The first diagram shows the sizes of 390 MSS. : 227 from the 8th to the 12th century, 163 from the 13th. […] The most striking aspect of this diagram is, that the MSS. are aligned so nicely along a straight line, and that this line virtually coincides with the line corresponding to the famous proportion a√2 […] It is not a matter of course for books to have this proportion ».

Ces deux études codicologiques observent la proportion, qui est le rapport le plus évident, et s’en contentent. Pourtant l’étude à nouveaux frais de leurs planches nous conduit à proposer une nouvelle méthode d’approche, qui ne serait pas obnubilée par les proportions nettes et simples, en particulier par la proportion normalisée et invariante du papier européen. Les deux graphiques de Gumbert et Guerrini montrent une répartition qui se modélise par une fonction affine de type y=ax+b. Ci-après, nous ajoutons à leur planche respective, les droites représentant les deux fonctions affines suivantes :

hauteur (en cm) = 5 + 1,25 x largeur (en cm)

hauteur (en cm) = 4 + 1,21 x largeur (en cm)

Ces deux fonctions semblent en effet mieux correspondre à la répartition des hauteur et largeur des manuscrits étudiés, la première par J. P. Gumbert, la seconde par G. Guerrini.
Gumbert Sizes of manuscripts p 278
Guerrini I trionfi del Petrarca pl 6
C’est sous cet angle que nous reprenons l’étude des livres produits par le scriptorium de Fontenay. L’approche géométrique présente l’avantage de sa plus grande simplicité et permet de voir la signification des rapports entre hauteur et largeur.

Hauteur et largeur des manuscrits du scriptorium de Fontenay

Le graphique permet de définir le rapport suivant comme base de la confection de livres à Fontenay :

hauteur (en cm) = 4 + 1,24 x largeur (en cm)

Le coefficient directeur est proche de celui obtenu par Gumbert pour une étude portant sur un large corpus de manuscrits antérieurs au xiiie siècle ; il diffère en revanche sensiblement de celui obtenu pour les manuscrits de Trionfi. Cette approche par fonction affine n’est pas incompatible avec les études sur la proportion, dont les résultats restent valables. Elle confirme notamment la spécificité des esthétiques des différents scriptoria, en montrant l’existence de différences bien réelles. Il n’en demeure pas moins qu’il faut nuancer l’importance de la proportion comme critère d’analyse des rapports entre hauteur et largeur dans l’étude des dimensions des feuillets pour les livres manuscrits du Moyen Âge. Il faudrait en effet préférer l’observation de la fonction affine qui rend mieux compte de la façon dont le parchemin, une fois sa surface préparée, est disposé pour recevoir l’écriture.

[1] L. Gilissen, Prolégomènes à la codicologie : recherches sur la construction des cahiers et la mise en page des manuscrits médiévaux, Gand, 1977

[2] Bischoff et Maniaci, « Pergamentgröße – Handschriftenformate – Lagenkonstruktion. Anmerkungen zur Methodik und zu den Ergebnissen der jüngeren kodikilogischen Forschung » p. 293, fig. 6

[3] Ornato et Bozzolo, Pour une histoire du livre manuscrit au moyen âge : trois essais de codicologie quantitative, t. I, p. 339, graphique F’.

[4] Ibid., t. I, p. 300-303. Cette différence est, par exemple, très sensible au XIe siècle quand les scriptoria de l’Est restent plus fidèles aux proportions carolingiennes et que les scriptoria parisiens préfèrent tôt des manuscrits plus étroits.

[5] Ibid., t. I, p. 304, tableau XVI. Les proportions et variances respectives sont les suivantes : Clairmarais, 0,719 et 0,00083 ; Saint-Amand 0,677 et 0,00065 ; Vauclair 0,693 et 0,00072 ; Belval 0,675 et 0,00107 ; Signy 0,692 et 0,00108, Saint-Thierry de Reims 0,682 et 0,00150 ; Saint-Remi de Reims 00,683 et 0,00063 ; Clairvaux 0,697 et 0,00083 ; Cîteaux 0,703 et 0,00088}. Il est malheureusement difficile de savoir sur quoi se fondent exactement ces statistiques.

[6] Si l’on calcule la proportion moyenne sur tous les manuscrits du xiie siècles provenant de la bibliothèque de Fontenay, celle-ci est de 0,7017, c’est-à-dire à peu près à mi-chemin entre Clairvaux et Cîteaux. Cette différence montre la spécificité de la production fontenaisienne même par rapport aux modèles dont le scriptorium pouvait disposer.

[7] J. P. Gumbert, « The sizes of manuscripts. Some statistics and notes », dans Anthony R. A. Croiset Van Uchelen (éd.), Hellinga Festschrift / Feestbundel / Mélanges. Forty-three studies in bibliography presented to Prof. Dr. Wytze Hellinga on the occasion of his retirement from the chair of neophilology in the University of Amsterdam at the end of the year 1978, Amsterdam, 1980, p. 277-288, p. 278.

[8] Guerrini, « Il sistema di comunicazione di un “corpus” di manoscritti quattrocenteschi. I “Trionfi” del Petrarca » fig. 6 entre les p. 184 et 185.

Publication du logiciel Oriflamms.exe : alignement texte-image, classification des caractères

Le logiciel d’alignement texte-image Oriflamms.exe, issu des travaux de l’ANR-12-CORP-0010, vient d’être publié. Le code source se trouve sur GitHub [https://github.com/Liris-Pleiad/oriflamms/]. L’exécutable version Windows et version Linux ainsi que les corpus alignés seront publiés dans les mois qui viennent sur le site de l’IRHT et les sites associés du projet.

Oriflamms.exe on GitHub
Oriflamms.exe on GitHub

Avec la version 0.6.3, nous sommes parvenus à un stade dont nous sommes fiers ! Outre de petites améliorations apportées progressivement (création de lignes, ordre des menus, etc.), c’est surtout l’ensemble des fonctionnalités  prévues au départ qui sont maintenant intégrées, soit directement dans le logiciel, soit grâce à la symbiose avec les développements du logiciel TXM développé à l’ENS de Lyon.

  1. transformation d’une édition de texte en un corpus alignable (TXM)
  2. alignement texte-image (mots): le logiciel Oriflamms.exe permet l’alignement d’une édition au format XML de la Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) avec les images des manuscrits au niveau des mots.
  3. alignement texte-image (caractères): le logiciel Oriflamms.exe permet également l’alignement au niveau des caractères.
  4. validation et correction de l’alignement
  5. visualisation de l’ensemble des occurrences d’un même caractère
  6. visualisation des occurrences d’une chaîne de caractères
  7. calcul des longueurs et surfaces des blancs entre les mots
  8. calcul des longueurs et surfaces des blancs entre les caractères
  9. classification automatique des occurrences d’un même caractère
  10. annotation des occurrences d’un caractère
  11. calculs paléographiques sur les abréviations et les formes de caractères (TXM)

Texte aligné au niveau des mots (Le Mans, Bibl. mun., ms. 157)

Occurrences du mot “sicut” visualisées dans le logiciel Oriflamms.exe

 

Classification des caractères : cluster proposé automatiquement pour rassembler plusieurs occurrences de la lettre "m"
Classification des caractères : cluster proposé automatiquement pour rassembler plusieurs occurrences de la lettre “m”

Pour faciliter la vie de l’éditeur de texte, le logiciel TXM ingère une édition TEI qui contient les attributs @facs avec le nom des images et prépare le corpus pour l’alignement selon la structure qui sera décrite dans un autre billet (Spécification du format XML-TEI pour l’alignement texte-image: 1. Structure). Les spécifications de l’édition TEI se trouvent dans cet autre billet (Spécification du format XML-TEI pour l’alignement texte-image: 2. Encodage de l’édition).

Liste d’abréviations latines pour l’encodage XML

La perception, l’analyse et l’encodage des abréviations est un sujet complexe, sur lequel le projet Oriflamms a déjà permis de se consacrer (cf. D. Stutzmann, « Ontologie des formes et encodage des textes manuscrits médiévaux. Le projet ORIFLAMMS », Document numérique, 16/3, 2013, p. 81-95, aux pages 86-89, accessible en ligne : https://www.cairn.info/resume.php?ID_ARTICLE=DN_163_0081).

Pour faire avancer la discussion de façon concrète, nous publions ici la liste des abréviations que nous utilisons actuellement dans les projets Oriflamms, ECMEN et HIMANIS.

Cette liste d’abréviations latines essaie de considérer systématiquement la forme la plus brève d’encodage et la plus économique par rapport au système abréviatif latin, de façon à minimiser le nombre d’abréviations différentes, représentées par une entité. Ainsi on trouvera “dn-tilde-domin” utilisable pour “domini” ou “domino”.

Le document ci-dessous s’utilise en l’enregistrant comme un fichier .dtd.

Attention : c’est un ensemble qui est encore amené à évoluer. Toutes remarques, critiques et sugggestions seront les bienvenues.

Etat du 19 mai 2016

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!-- ABREVIATIONS PAR SUSPENSION -->
<!ENTITY a-antiphona "<choice><expan>a<ex>ntiphona</ex></expan><abbr>a</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-tilde-antiphona "<choice><expan>a<ex>ntiphona</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-signe-double-ad "<choice><expan>a<ex>d</ex></expan><abbr>a<am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-point-alleluia "<choice><expan>a<ex>lleluia</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-point-arundineto "<choice><expan>a<ex>rundineto</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY b-tilde-bernardus "<choice><expan>b<ex>ernardus</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY c-tilde-cetera "<choice><expan>c<ex>etera</ex></expan><abbr>c<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-denariorum "<choice><expan>d<ex>enariorum</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-denarios "<choice><expan>d<ex>enarios</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-dicatorum "<choice><expan>d<ex>icatorum</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-domine "<choice><expan>d<ex>omine</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-domini "<choice><expan>d<ex>omin</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY e-tilde-est "<choice><expan>e<ex>st</ex></expan><abbr>e<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY e-tilde-es "<choice><expan>e<ex>s</ex></expan><abbr>e<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY f-tilde-fratris "<choice><expan>f<ex>ratris</ex></expan><abbr>f<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-signe-simple-meum "<choice><expan>m<ex>eum</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY N-point-Nicolao "<choice><expan>N<ex>icolao</ex></expan><abbr>N<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY n-tilde-non "<choice><expan>n<ex>on</ex></expan><abbr>n<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-tilde-omnis "<choice><expan>o<ex>mnis</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-signe-double-paulus "<choice><expan>p<ex>aulus</ex></expan><abbr>p<am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-tilde-psalmus "<choice><expan>p<ex>salmus</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-point-quasi "<choice><expan>q<ex>uasi</ex></expan><abbr>q.</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-tilde-respo "<choice><expan>r<ex>espo</ex></expan><abbr>r<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-tilde-respondit "<choice><expan>r<ex>espondit</ex></expan><abbr>r<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-tilde-responsorium "<choice><expan>r<ex>esponsorium</ex></expan><abbr>r<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-point-rei "<choice><expan>r<ex>ei</ex></expan><abbr>r<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-point-scilicet "<choice><expan>s<ex>cilicet</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-tilde-sancti "<choice><expan>s<ex>ancti</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-tilde-sermone "<choice><expan>s<ex>ermone</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-tilde-sunt "<choice><expan>s<ex>unt</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY u-tilde-ut "<choice><expan>u<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>u<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY u-tilde-uersus "<choice><expan>u<ex>ersus</ex></expan><abbr>u<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- SUSPENSIONS -->
<!ENTITY an-tilde-antiphona "<choice><expan>an<ex>tiphona</ex></expan><abbr>an<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ant-tilde-antiphona "<choice><expan>ant<ex>iphona</ex></expan><abbr>ant<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY Ascen-tilde-Ascensionis "<choice><expan>Ascen<ex>sionis</ex></expan><abbr>Ascen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ap-tilde-apud "<choice><expan>ap<ex>ud</ex></expan><abbr>ap<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ar-point-argento "<choice><expan>ar<ex>gento</ex></expan><abbr>ar<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY arg-tilde-argentum "<choice><expan>ar<ex>gentum</ex></expan><abbr>arg<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY aug-tilde-augustinus "<choice><expan>aug<ex>ustinus</ex></expan><abbr>aug<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY bened-tilde-benedicite "<choice><expan>bened<ex>icite</ex></expan><abbr>bene<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cant-tilde-cantici "<choice><expan>cant<ex>ici</ex></expan><abbr>cant<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cant-tilde-canticum "<choice><expan>cant<ex>icum</ex></expan><abbr>cant<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cap-tilde-capitulum "<choice><expan>cap<ex>itulum</ex></expan><abbr>cap<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY capitan-tilde-capitanei "<choice><expan>capitan<ex>ei</ex></expan><abbr>capitan<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY card-tilde-cardinalem "<choice><expan>card<ex>inalem</ex></expan><abbr>card<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY coll-tilde-collecta "<choice><expan>coll<ex>ecta</ex></expan><abbr>coll<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY con-point-conpeditorum "<choice><expan>con<ex>peditorum</ex></expan><abbr>con<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY con-point-concilio "<choice><expan>con<ex>cilio</ex></expan><abbr>con<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cor-point-cordibus "<choice><expan>cor<ex>dibus</ex></expan><abbr>cor<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY coss-point-consulibus "<choice><expan>co<ex>n</ex>s<ex>ulibus</ex></expan><abbr>coss<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cre-point-cremium "<choice><expan>cre<ex>mium</ex></expan><abbr>cre<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cur-tilde-curie "<choice><expan>cur<ex>ie</ex></expan><abbr>cur<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dan-tilde-danielis "<choice><expan>dan<ex>ielis</ex></expan><abbr>dan<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY de-tilde-demoliuntur "<choice><expan>de<ex>moliuntur</ex></expan><abbr>de<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY di-point-dimidio "<choice><expan>di<ex>midio</ex></expan><abbr>di<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY di-point-dicamus "<choice><expan>di<ex>camus</ex></expan><abbr>di<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY di-point-discurrent "<choice><expan>di<ex>scurrent</ex></expan><abbr>di<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dist-tilde-distinctio "<choice><expan>dist<ex>inctio</ex></expan><abbr>dist<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY do-point-dominum "<choice><expan>do<ex>minum</ex></expan><abbr>do<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ecc-i-suscrit-ecclesiasticus "<choice><expan>ecc<ex>les</ex>i<ex>asticus</ex></expan><abbr>ecc<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY el-tilde-eleison "<choice><expan>el<ex>eison</ex></expan><abbr>el<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY et-tilde-etiam "<choice><expan>et<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr>et<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY eug-tilde-euangelio "<choice><expan>eu<ex>an</ex>g<ex>elio</ex></expan><abbr>eug<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY febr-tilde-februario "<choice><expan>febr<ex>uario</ex></expan><abbr>febr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fest-tilde-festiuitate "<choice><expan>fest<ex>iuitate</ex></expan><abbr>fest<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ge-point-gemitum "<choice><expan>ge<ex>mitum</ex></expan><abbr>ge<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ge-point-generatione "<choice><expan>ge<ex>neratione</ex></expan><abbr>ge<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ge-point-generationem "<choice><expan>ge<ex>nerationem</ex></expan><abbr>ge<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gen-tilde-genesis "<choice><expan>gen<ex>nesis</ex></expan><abbr>ge<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ianuar-tilde-ianuarias "<choice><expan>ianuar<ex>ias</ex></expan><abbr>ianuar<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ian-tilde-ianuario "<choice><expan>ian<ex>uario</ex></expan><abbr>ian<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY in-tilde-inde "<choice><expan>in<ex>de</ex></expan><abbr>in<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY indic-tilde-indictione "<choice><expan>indic<ex>tione</ex></expan><abbr>indic<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ini-point-inimici "<choice><expan>ini<ex>mici</ex></expan><abbr>ini<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY io-point-iohanne "<choice><expan>io<ex>hanne</ex></expan><abbr>io<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY io-point-iohannes "<choice><expan>io<ex>hannes</ex></expan><abbr>io<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ip-point-ipse "<choice><expan>ip<ex>se</ex></expan><abbr>ip<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY iudic-tilde-iudices "<choice><expan>iudic<ex>es</ex></expan><abbr>iudic<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-laudes "<choice><expan>l<ex>audes</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-laudibus "<choice><expan>l<ex>audibus</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY la-point-lapides "<choice><expan>la<ex>pides</ex></expan><abbr>la<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY matut-point-matutinum "<choice><expan>ma<ex>tutinum</ex></expan><abbr>matut<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY miss-tilde-missione "<choice><expan>miss<ex>ione</ex></expan><abbr>miss<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY no-point-nostris "<choice><expan>no<ex>stris</ex></expan><abbr>no<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY no-point-nota "<choice><expan>no<ex>ta</ex></expan><abbr>no<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nobil-tilde-nobilium "<choice><expan>nobil<ex>ium</ex></expan><abbr>nobil<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY noc-point-nocturno "<choice><expan>noc<ex>turno</ex></expan><abbr>noc<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY non-tilde-nonas "<choice><expan>non<ex>as</ex></expan><abbr>non<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nos-point-nostrum "<choice><expan>nos<ex>trum</ex></expan><abbr>nos<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY oct-tilde-octaua "<choice><expan>oct<ex>aua</ex></expan><abbr>oct<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ord-tilde-ordinis "<choice><expan>ord<ex>inis</ex></expan><abbr>ord<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-point-plurimam "<choice><expan>p<ex>lurimam</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pa-point-patris "<choice><expan>pa<ex>tris</ex></expan><abbr>pa<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pau-point-paucitatem "<choice><expan>pau<ex>citatem</ex></expan><abbr>pau<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pe-point-petri "<choice><expan>pe<ex>tri</ex></expan><abbr>pe<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pont-tilde-pontifice "<choice><expan>pont<ex>ifice</ex></expan><abbr>pont<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pot-tilde-potest "<choice><expan>pot<ex>est</ex></expan><abbr>pot<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ps-tilde-psalmus "<choice><expan>ps<ex>almus</ex></expan><abbr>ps<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY rel-tilde-relicta "<choice><expan>rel<ex>icta</ex></expan><abbr>rel<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sal-point-salutem "<choice><expan>sal<ex>utem</ex></expan><abbr>sal<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sal-tilde-salutem "<choice><expan>sal<ex>utem</ex></expan><abbr>sal<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY salt-tilde-salutem "<choice><expan>sal<ex>u</ex>t<ex>em</ex></expan><abbr>salt<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY scin-point-scintille "<choice><expan>scin<ex>tille</ex></expan><abbr>scin<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY secular-tilde-seculares "<choice><expan>secular<ex>es</ex></expan><abbr>secular<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tha-point-thalamo "<choice><expan>tha<ex>lamo</ex></expan><abbr>tha<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tur-tilde-turonensium "<choice><expan>tur<ex>onensium</ex></expan><abbr>tur<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY uen-tilde-uenerabili "<choice><expan>uen<ex>erabili</ex></expan><abbr>uen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY uigl-tilde-uigilia "<choice><expan>uig<ex>i</ex>l<ex>ia</ex></expan><abbr>uigl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ui-point-uineas "<choice><expan>ui<ex>neas</ex></expan><abbr>ui<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY un-tilde-unde "<choice><expan>un<ex>de</ex></expan><abbr>un<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ysa-point-ysaias "<choice><expan>ysa<ex>ias</ex></expan><abbr>ysa<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- SUSPENSIONS SYLLABIQUES -->
<!ENTITY bn-tilde-benedicite "<choice><expan>b<ex>e</ex>n<ex>edicite</ex></expan><abbr>bn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY bn-tilde-benedictionem "<choice><expan>b<ex>e</ex>n<ex>edictionem</ex></expan><abbr>bn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dd-tilde-danda "<choice><expan>d<ex>an</ex>d<ex>a</ex></expan><abbr>dd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gg-gregori "<choice><expan>g<ex>re</ex>g<ex>ori</ex></expan><abbr>gg<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY psl-tilde-psalmorum "<choice><expan>ps<ex>a</ex>l<ex>morum</ex></expan><abbr>psl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ms-tilde-mense "<choice><expan>m<ex>en</ex>s<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>ms<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pp-tilde-pape "<choice><expan>p<ex>a</ex>p<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>pp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qr-tilde-quare "<choice><expan>q<ex>ua</ex>r<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>qr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sn-tilde-sine "<choice><expan>s<ex>i</ex>n<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>sn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tm-tilde-tamen "<choice><expan>t<ex>a</ex>m<ex>en</ex></expan><abbr>tm<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tpr-tilde-tempore "<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>o</ex>r<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>tpr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tpr-tilde-tempora "<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>o</ex>r<ex>a</ex></expan><abbr>tpr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- ABREVIATIONS PAR CONTRACTION -->
<!-- RADICAUX -->
<!ENTITY a-i-suscrit-ali "<choice><expan>a<ex>l</ex>i</expan><abbr>a<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-tilde-anim "<choice><expan>a<ex>nim</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY abb-tilde-abbat "<choice><expan>abb<ex>at</ex></expan><abbr>abb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY acc-tilde-accus "<choice><expan>acc<ex>us</ex></expan><abbr>acc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY affo-afforis "<choice><expan>affo<ex>ris</ex></expan><abbr>affo</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY affo-afforismo "<choice><expan>affo<ex>rismo</ex></expan><abbr>affo</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ai-tilde-anim "<choice><expan>a<ex>n</ex>i<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr>ai<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY angl-tilde-angel "<choice><expan>ang<ex>e</ex>l</expan><abbr>angl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY angl-tilde-angelu "<choice><expan>ang<ex>e</ex>lu</expan><abbr>angl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-ann "<choice><expan>a<ex>nn</ex></expan><abbr>a</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY antiph-tilde-antiphon "<choice><expan>antiph<ex>on</ex></expan><abbr>antiph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY apl-tilde-apostol "<choice><expan>ap<ex>osto</ex>l</expan><abbr>apl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY apl-tilde-apostolu "<choice><expan>ap<ex>osto</ex>lu</expan><abbr>apl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY appo-appoplexi "<choice><expan>appo<ex>plexi</ex></expan><abbr>appo</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY assup-assumpti "<choice><expan>assu<ex>m</ex>p<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>assup</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY auct-tilde-auctoritat "<choice><expan>auct<ex>oritate</ex></expan><abbr>auct<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY aucto-a-suscrit-auctorita "<choice><expan>aucto<ex>rit</ex>a</expan><abbr>aucto<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY b-bernard "<choice><expan>b<ex>ernard</ex></expan><abbr>b</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY b-tilde-beat "<choice><expan>b<ex>eat</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY b-tilde-beatu "<choice><expan>b<ex>eatu</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY bt-tilde-beat "<choice><expan>b<ex>ea</ex>t</expan><abbr>bt<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY c-tilde-caus "<choice><expan>c<ex>aus</ex></expan><abbr>c<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ca-capitul "<choice><expan>ca<ex>pitul</ex></expan><abbr>ca</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cap-capitul "<choice><expan>cap<ex>itul</ex></expan><abbr>cap</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY capl-tilde-capitul "<choice><expan>cap<ex>itu</ex>l</expan><abbr>capl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY capl-tilde-capitulu "<choice><expan>cap<ex>itu</ex>l<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>capl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY coi-tilde-communi "<choice><expan>co<ex>mmun</ex>i</expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am>i</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY comu-com-tironien-commun "<choice><expan>com<ex>m</ex>u<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝯu</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY comun-com-tironien-communi "<choice><expan>com<ex>m</ex>u<ex>n</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ꝯui</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY confo-tilde-confessio "<choice><expan>conf<ex>essi</ex>o</expan><abbr>confo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cupi-tilde-cupiscienti "<choice><expan>cupi<ex>scienti</ex></expan><abbr>cupi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-de "<choice><expan>d<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-deb "<choice><expan>d<ex>eb</ex></expan><abbr>d</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-deu "<choice><expan>d<ex>eu</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-domin "<choice><expan>d<ex>omin</ex></expan><abbr>d</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dc-tilde-dict "<choice><expan>d<ex>i</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>dc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dc-tilde-dicti "<choice><expan>d<ex>i</ex>c<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>dc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dc-tilde-dictu "<choice><expan>d<ex>i</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>dc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dicen-tilde-dicenti "<choice><expan>dicen<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>dicen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY digni-dignita "<choice><expan>digni<ex>ta</ex></expan><abbr>digni</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dmc-tilde-dominic "<choice><expan>d<ex>o</ex>m<ex>ini</ex>c</expan><abbr>dmc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dn-tilde-domin "<choice><expan>d<ex>omi</ex>n</expan><abbr>dn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dn-tilde-dominu "<choice><expan>d<ex>omi</ex>n<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>dn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY do-domin "<choice><expan>do<ex>min</ex></expan><abbr>do</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY do-dominu "<choice><expan>do<ex>minu</ex></expan><abbr>do</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY duc-ducti "<choice><expan>duc<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>duc</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ecc-eccles "<choice><expan>ecc<ex>les</ex></expan><abbr>ecc</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ecc-ecclesi "<choice><expan>ecc<ex>lesi</ex></expan><abbr>ecc</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY eccl-tilde-eccles "<choice><expan>eccl<ex>es</ex></expan><abbr>eccl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY eccl-tilde-ecclesi "<choice><expan>eccl<ex>esi</ex></expan><abbr>eccl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ęccl-tilde-ęcclesi "<choice><expan>ęccl<ex>esi</ex></expan><abbr>ęccl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ee-tilde-esse "<choice><expan>e<ex>ss</ex>e</expan><abbr>ee<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY efficass-tilde-efficacissim "<choice><expan>effica<ex>ci</ex>ss<ex>im</ex></expan><abbr>efficass<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY elc-tilde-elect "<choice><expan>el<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>elc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY emin-tilde-eminenti "<choice><expan>emin<ex>enti</ex></expan><abbr>emin<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ep-tilde-episcop "<choice><expan>ep<ex>iscop</ex></expan><abbr>ep<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ep-tilde-episcopu "<choice><expan>ep<ex>iscopu</ex></expan><abbr>ep<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY epl-tilde-epistul "<choice><expan>ep<ex>istu</ex>l</expan><abbr>epl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY eugl-tilde-euangel "<choice><expan>eu<ex>an</ex>g<ex>e</ex>l</expan><abbr>eugl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY eugl-tilde-euangeli "<choice><expan>eu<ex>an</ex>g<ex>e</ex>l<ex>i</ex></expan><abbr>eugl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY eugl-tilde-euangeliu "<choice><expan>eu<ex>an</ex>g<ex>e</ex>l<ex>iu</ex></expan><abbr>eugl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ex-exempl "<choice><expan>ex<ex>empl</ex></expan><abbr>ex</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY exem-exempl "<choice><expan>exem<ex>pl</ex></expan><abbr>exem</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY f-tilde-fier "<choice><expan>f<ex>ier</ex></expan><abbr>f<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fact "<choice><expan>f<ex>a</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-factu "<choice><expan>f<ex>a</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fect "<choice><expan>f<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fecti "<choice><expan>f<ex>e</ex>c<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fectu "<choice><expan>f<ex>e</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY flui-tilde-flumin "<choice><expan>flu<ex>m</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>flu<am>̃</am>i</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fo-tilde-fessio "<choice><expan>f<ex>essi</ex>o</expan><abbr>fo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fr-tilde-fratr "<choice><expan>fr<ex>atr</ex></expan><abbr>fr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fr-tilde-fratre "<choice><expan>fr<ex>atre</ex></expan><abbr>fr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fr-tilde-fratru "<choice><expan>fr<ex>atru</ex></expan><abbr>fr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY g-tilde-gente "<choice><expan>g<ex>ente</ex></expan><abbr>g<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY g-tilde-geri "<choice><expan>g<ex>eri</ex></expan><abbr>g<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY g-tilde-grati "<choice><expan>g<ex>rati</ex></expan><abbr>g<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gi-gimen "<choice><expan>gi<ex>men</ex></expan><abbr>gi</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gl-tilde-glor "<choice><expan>gl<ex>or</ex></expan><abbr>gl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gl-tilde-glori "<choice><expan>gl<ex>ori</ex></expan><abbr>gl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gn-tilde-gener "<choice><expan>g<ex>e</ex>n<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr>gn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gn-tilde-generation "<choice><expan>g<ex>e</ex>n<ex>eration</ex></expan><abbr>gn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gn-tilde-gente "<choice><expan>g<ex>e</ex>n<ex>te</ex></expan><abbr>gn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gno-tilde-generatio "<choice><expan>g<ex>e</ex>n<ex>erati</ex>o</expan><abbr>gn<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gr-tilde-grati "<choice><expan>gr<ex>ati</ex></expan><abbr>gr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gr-tilde-grat "<choice><expan>gr<ex>at</ex></expan><abbr>gr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY gt-tilde-gente "<choice><expan>g<ex>en</ex>t<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>gt<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY guill-tilde-guillelmu "<choice><expan>guill<ex>elmu</ex></expan><abbr>guill<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hab "<choice><expan>h<ex>ab</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-tilde-habe "<choice><expan>h<ex>abe</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hib "<choice><expan>h<ex>ib</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ho-tilde-homo "<choice><expan>h<ex>om</ex>o</expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ho-tilde-homin "<choice><expan>ho<ex>min</ex></expan><abbr>ho<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ho-tilde-hominu "<choice><expan>ho<ex>minu</ex></expan><abbr>ho<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY hoi-tilde-homin "<choice><expan>ho<ex>m</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>hoi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY hoi-tilde-hominu "<choice><expan>ho<ex>m</ex>i<ex>nu</ex></expan><abbr>hoi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY hom-tilde-homin "<choice><expan>hom<ex>in</ex></expan><abbr>hom<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY hr-tilde-here "<choice><expan>h<ex>e</ex>r<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>hr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ih-tilde-ies "<choice><expan>i<ex>es</ex></expan><abbr>ih<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ih-tilde-iesu "<choice><expan>i<ex>esu</ex></expan><abbr>ih<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-i-suscrit-ibi "<choice><expan>i<ex>b</ex>i</expan><abbr>i<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ioh-tilde-iohann "<choice><expan>ioh<ex>ann</ex></expan><abbr>ioh<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ioh-tilde-iohanne "<choice><expan>ioh<ex>anne</ex></expan><abbr>ioh<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ip-ips "<choice><expan>ip<ex>s</ex></expan><abbr>ip</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ip-tilde-ips "<choice><expan>ip<ex>s</ex></expan><abbr>ip<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ip-tilde-ipsu "<choice><expan>ip<ex>su</ex></expan><abbr>ip<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY it-tilde-iteru "<choice><expan>it<ex>eru</ex></expan><abbr>it<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY iusti-tilde-iustiti "<choice><expan>iusti</expan><abbr>iusti<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY kl-tilde-kalend "<choice><expan>k<ex>a</ex>l<ex>end</ex></expan><abbr>kl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY km-tilde-karissim "<choice><expan>k<ex>arissi</ex>m</expan><abbr>km<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lect "<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lecti "<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex>c<ex>ti</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-lectio "<choice><expan>l<ex>ectio</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lbr-tilde-libras "<choice><expan>l<ex>i</ex>br<ex>as</ex></expan><abbr>lb<am>̃</am>r</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lectio "<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex>c<ex>tio</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lectu "<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY li-libr "<choice><expan>li<ex>br</ex></expan><abbr>li</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lui-tilde-lumin "<choice><expan>lu<ex>m</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>lui<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-maxim "<choice><expan>m<ex>axim</ex></expan><abbr>m</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-tilde-me "<choice><expan>m<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-tilde-meu "<choice><expan>m<ex>eu</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-tilde-miseri "<choice><expan>m<ex>iseri</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-tilde-mod "<choice><expan>m<ex>od</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY magr-tilde-magistr "<choice><expan>mag<ex>ist</ex>r</expan><abbr>magr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY magr-tilde-magistru "<choice><expan>mag<ex>ist</ex>r<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>magr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY math-tilde-matheu "<choice><expan>math<ex>eu</ex></expan><abbr>math<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY me-medici "<choice><expan>me<ex>dici</ex></expan><abbr>me</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mi-min "<choice><expan>m<ex>in</ex></expan><abbr>m</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mi-tilde-misericordi "<choice><expan>mi<ex>sericordi</ex></expan><abbr>mi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY milli-tilde-millesim "<choice><expan>mill<ex>es</ex>i<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr>milli<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY miscdi-tilde-misericordi "<choice><expan>mis<ex>eri</ex>c<ex>or</ex>di</expan><abbr>miscdi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mo-mod "<choice><expan>mo<ex>d</ex></expan><abbr>mo</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mr-tilde-martir "<choice><expan>m<ex>arti</ex>r</expan><abbr>mr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mr-tilde-matr "<choice><expan>m<ex>at</ex>r</expan><abbr>mr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY n-tilde-nome "<choice><expan>n<ex>ome</ex></expan><abbr>n<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY n-tilde-sp-ur-natur "<choice><expan>n<ex>atur</ex></expan><abbr>n<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nec-tilde-neccessari "<choice><expan>nec<ex>essari</ex></expan><abbr>nec<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY necc-tilde-neccessari "<choice><expan>nec<surplus>c</surplus><ex>essari</ex></expan><abbr>necc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY no-tilde-nomin "<choice><expan>no<ex>min</ex></expan><abbr>no<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY noi-tilde-nomin "<choice><expan>no<ex>m</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>noi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nr-tilde-noster "<choice><expan>n<ex>oste</ex>r</expan><abbr>nr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nr-tilde-nostr "<choice><expan>n<ex>ost</ex>r</expan><abbr>nr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nr-tilde-nostru "<choice><expan>n<ex>ost</ex>r<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>nr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nr-tilde-nostra "<choice><expan>n<ex>ost</ex>r<ex>a</ex></expan><abbr>nr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nu-tilde-numer "<choice><expan>nu<ex>mer</ex></expan><abbr>nu<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nu-tilde-numeru "<choice><expan>nu<ex>meru</ex></expan><abbr>nu<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-tilde-omn "<choice><expan>o<ex>mn</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-tilde-omne "<choice><expan>o<ex>mne</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-tilde-oste "<choice><expan>o<ex>ste</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ob-tilde-obedient "<choice><expan>ob<ex>edient</ex></expan><abbr>ob<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ob-tilde-obiect "<choice><expan>ob<ex>iect</ex></expan><abbr>ob<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ob-tilde-obiectu "<choice><expan>ob<ex>iectu</ex></expan><abbr>ob<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY obl-tilde-oblat "<choice><expan>obl<ex>at</ex></expan><abbr>obl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ocl-tilde-ocul "<choice><expan>oc<ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>ocl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY occl-tilde-occul "<choice><expan>occ<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>occl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ocl-tilde-oculu "<choice><expan>oc<ex>u</ex>lu</expan><abbr>ocl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY oi-tilde-omnin "<choice><expan>o<ex>mn</ex>i<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>oi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY oi-tilde-omniu "<choice><expan>o<ex>mn</ex>i<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>oi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY om-tilde-omn "<choice><expan>om<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>om<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY om-tilde-omne "<choice><expan>om<ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr>om<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY om-tilde-omni "<choice><expan>om<ex>ni</ex></expan><abbr>om<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY or-tilde-orati "<choice><expan>or<ex>ati</ex></expan><abbr>or<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY oro-tilde-oration "<choice><expan>or<ex>ati</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>or<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY oro-tilde-oratione "<choice><expan>or<ex>ati</ex>o<ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr>or<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-tilde-pate "<choice><expan>p<ex>ate</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pac-tilde-pacienc "<choice><expan>pac<ex>ienc</ex></expan><abbr>pac<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pn-tilde-presen "<choice><expan>p<ex>rese</ex>n</expan><abbr>pn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pr-tilde-patr "<choice><expan>p<ex>at</ex>r</expan><abbr>pr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-tilde-pre-br-tilde-presbiteru "<choice><expan>p<ex>res</ex>b<ex>ite</ex>r<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr><am></am>br<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pbr-tilde-presbiteru "<choice><expan>p<ex>res</ex>b<ex>ite</ex>r<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>pbr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pc-tilde-pecca "<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>c<ex>ca</ex></expan><abbr>pc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pcc-tilde-pecc "<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>cc</expan><abbr>pcc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pcc-tilde-peccat "<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>cc<ex>at</ex></expan><abbr>pcc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pcc-tilde-peccatu "<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>cc<ex>atu</ex></expan><abbr>pcc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pecc-tilde-peccat "<choice><expan>pecc<ex>at</ex></expan><abbr>pecc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pecc-tilde-peccatu "<choice><expan>pecc<ex>atu</ex></expan><abbr>pecc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pen-tilde-penitent "<choice><expan>pen<ex>itent</ex></expan><abbr>pen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pn-tilde-penitent "<choice><expan>p<ex>e</ex>n<ex>itent</ex></expan><abbr>pn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pp-popul "<choice><expan>p<ex>o</ex>p<ex>ul</ex></expan><abbr>pp</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ppl-tilde-popul "<choice><expan>p<ex>o</ex>p<ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>ppl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ppl-tilde-populu "<choice><expan>p<ex>o</ex>p<ex>u</ex>l<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>ppl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY popl-tilde-popul "<choice><expan>pop<ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>popl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY popl-tilde-populu "<choice><expan>pop<ex>u</ex>l<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>popl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY poi-tilde-posi "<choice><expan>po<ex>s</ex>i</expan><abbr>poi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY poit-tilde-posit "<choice><expan>po<ex>s</ex>it</expan><abbr>poi<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY posso-tilde-possessio "<choice><expan>poss<ex>essi</ex>o</expan><abbr>posso<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY posso-tilde-possession "<choice><expan>poss<ex>essi</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>posso<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pra-tilde-presta "<choice><expan>pr<ex>est</ex>a</expan><abbr>pr<am>̃</am>a</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pronosti-p-barré-pronostican "<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>nosti<ex>can</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝓ</am>nosti</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY proph-tilde-prophet "<choice><expan>proph<ex>et</ex></expan><abbr>proph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY proph-p-barré-tilde-prophet "<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>ph<ex>et</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝓ</am>ph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ps-tilde-potens "<choice><expan>p<ex>oten</ex>s</expan><abbr>ps<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pu-tilde-pueru "<choice><expan>pu<ex>ueru</ex></expan><abbr>pu<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY rc-tilde-recti "<choice><expan>r<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex>i</expan><abbr>rc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ro-tilde-ratio "<choice><expan>r<ex>ati</ex>o</expan><abbr>ro<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ro-tilde-ratione "<choice><expan>r<ex>ati</ex>o<ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr>ro<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sab-tilde-sabba "<choice><expan>sab<ex>ba</ex></expan><abbr>sab<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sacr-tilde-sacramentu "<choice><expan>sacr<ex>amentu</ex></expan><abbr>sacr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sap-tilde-sapient "<choice><expan>sap<ex>ent</ex></expan><abbr>sap<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sb-tilde-subiect "<choice><expan>s<ex>u</ex>b<ex>iect</ex></expan><abbr>sb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sb-tilde-subiectu "<choice><expan>s<ex>u</ex>b<ex>iectu</ex></expan><abbr>sb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sb-tilde-substanti "<choice><expan>s<ex>u</ex>b<ex>stanti</ex></expan><abbr>sb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY scl-tilde-secul "<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>scl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY scl-tilde-seculu "<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>u</ex>l<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>scl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sc-tilde-sanct "<choice><expan>s<ex>an</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>sc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sc-tilde-sanctu "<choice><expan>s<ex>an</ex>c<ex>tu</ex></expan><abbr>sc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sci-tilde-scienti "<choice><expan>sci<ex>enti</ex></expan><abbr>sci<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sigca-tilde-significa "<choice><expan>sig<ex>nifi</ex>ca</expan><abbr>sigc<am>̃a</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sil-tilde-simul "<choice><expan>si<ex>mu</ex>l</expan><abbr>sil<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sil-tilde-simil "<choice><expan>si<ex>mi</ex>l</expan><abbr>sil<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sn-tilde-sentent "<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>n<ex>tent</ex></expan><abbr>sn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY spc-tilde-spect "<choice><expan>sp<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>spc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sp-tilde-spirit "<choice><expan>sp<ex>irit</ex></expan><abbr>sp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sp-tilde-spiritu "<choice><expan>sp<ex>iritu</ex></expan><abbr>sp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY spa-tilde-specia "<choice><expan>sp<ex>eci</ex>a</expan><abbr>spa<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY steph-tilde-stephan "<choice><expan>steph<ex>an</ex></expan><abbr>steph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sub-tilde-substant "<choice><expan>sub<ex>stant</ex></expan><abbr>sub<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY test-testament "<choice><expan>t<ex>estament</ex></expan><abbr>test<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY test-tilde-testimoniu "<choice><expan>test<ex>imoniu</ex></expan><abbr>test<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY testio-tilde-testimoni "<choice><expan>testi<ex>m</ex>o<ex>ni</ex></expan><abbr>testio<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tp-tilde-tempor "<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>or</ex></expan><abbr>tp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tp-p-barré-tempor "<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>or</ex></expan><abbr>t<am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tp-tilde-temp "<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p</expan><abbr>tp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tp-tilde-tempo "<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>o</ex></expan><abbr>tp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tp-tilde-tempu "<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>tp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ul-tilde-uel "<choice><expan>u<ex>e</ex>l</expan><abbr>ul<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ur-tilde-uestr "<choice><expan>u<ex>est</ex>r</expan><abbr>ur<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ur-tilde-uester "<choice><expan>u<ex>este</ex>r</expan><abbr>ur<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ur-tilde-uestru "<choice><expan>u<ex>est</ex>ru</expan><abbr>ur<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY xp-tilde-Christ "<choice><expan>Chr<ex>ist</ex></expan><abbr>xp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY xp-tilde-Christu "<choice><expan>Chr<ex>istu</ex></expan><abbr>xp<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- SANS RADICAL -->
<!ENTITY aid-i-suscrit-aliud "<choice><expan>a<ex>l</ex>i<ex>u</ex>d</expan><abbr>a<am>ͥ</am>d</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY alla-tilde-alleluia "<choice><expan>all<ex>elui</ex>a</expan><abbr>all<am>̃</am>a</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dd-tilde-dauid "<choice><expan>d<ex>aui</ex>d</expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dnr-tilde-dicuntur "<choice><expan>d<ex>icu</ex>n<ex>tu</ex>r</expan><abbr>dnr<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dr-tilde-dicitur "<choice><expan>d<ex>icitu</ex>r</expan><abbr>dr<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY hc-tilde-hunc "<choice><expan>h<ex>un</ex>c</expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am>c</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ierlm-tilde-ierusalem "<choice><expan>ier<ex>usa</ex>l<ex>e</ex>m</expan><abbr>ierl<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ihrlm-tilde-ierusalem "<choice><expan>ier<ex>usa</ex>l<ex>e</ex>m</expan><abbr>ihrl<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY iherlm-tilde-ierusalem "<choice><expan>ier<ex>usa</ex>l<ex>e</ex>m</expan><abbr>ihrl<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY irlm-tilde-ierusalem "<choice><expan>i<ex>e</ex>r<ex>usa</ex>l<ex>e</ex>m</expan><abbr>irl<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY isrl-tilde-israhel "<choice><expan>isr<ex>ahe</ex>l</expan><abbr>isr<am>̃</am>l</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY kl-tilde-kalendas "<choice><expan>k<ex>a</ex>l<ex>endas</ex></expan><abbr>kl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY kls-tilde-kalendas "<choice><expan>k<ex>a</ex>l<ex>enda</ex>s</expan><abbr>kls<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY loqr-tilde-loquitur "<choice><expan>loq<ex>uitu</ex>r</expan><abbr>loq<am>̃</am>r</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mli-tilde-mediolani "<choice><expan>m<ex>edio</ex>l<ex>an</ex>i</expan><abbr>mli<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pphis-p-barré-tilde-prophetis "<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>ph<ex>et</ex>is</expan><abbr>ꝓph<am>̃</am>is</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sabbi-tilde-sabbati "<choice><expan>sabb<ex>at</ex>i</expan><abbr>sabb<am>̃</am>i</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sabbo-tilde-sabbato "<choice><expan>sabb<ex>at</ex>o</expan><abbr>sabb<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ur-tilde-uidetur "<choice><expan>u<ex>idetu</ex>r</expan><abbr>ur<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY scr-tilde-secreta "<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>cr<ex>eta</ex></expan><abbr>sc<am>̃</am>r</abbr></choice>">

<!-- PARTIE DE MOT -->
<!-- terminaison: par contraction -->
<!ENTITY bo-tilde-butio "<choice><expan>b<ex>uti</ex>o</expan><abbr>bo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY br-tilde-bitur "<choice><expan>b<ex>itu</ex>r</expan><abbr>br<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY bt-tilde-bunt "<choice><expan>b<ex>un</ex>t</expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY c-tilde-sp-ur-ciatur "<choice><expan>c<ex>iatur</ex></expan><abbr>c<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cr-tilde-citur "<choice><expan>c<ex>itu</ex>r</expan><abbr>cr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dr-tilde-ditur "<choice><expan>d<ex>itu</ex>r</expan><abbr>dr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dr-tilde-sp-ur-ditur "<choice><expan>d<ex>itu</ex>r</expan><abbr>dr<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY dt-tilde-dunt "<choice><expan>d<ex>un</ex>t</expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lo-tilde-latio "<choice><expan>l<ex>ati</ex>o</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lr-tilde-liter "<choice><expan>l<ex>ite</ex>r</expan><abbr>lr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lr-tilde-litter "<choice><expan>l<ex>itte</ex>r</expan><abbr>lr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lr-tilde-iliter "<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>l<ex>ite</ex>r</expan><abbr>lr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-i-suscrit-r-quitur "<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>i<ex>tu</ex>r</expan><abbr>q<am>ͥ</am>r</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY rt-tilde-runt "<choice><expan>r<ex>un</ex>t</expan><abbr>r<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY st-tilde-sunt "<choice><expan>s<ex>un</ex>t</expan><abbr>s<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>">

<!-- terminaison: par suspension -->
<!ENTITY n-tilde-ensis "<choice><expan><ex>e</ex>n<ex>sis</ex></expan><abbr>n<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-abitur "<choice><expan><ex>abitur</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-bant "<choice><expan><ex>bant</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-cerunt "<choice><expan><ex>cerunt</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-dabant "<choice><expan><ex>dabant</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-dabit "<choice><expan><ex>dabit</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-dasti "<choice><expan><ex>dasti</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-ducaui "<choice><expan><ex>ducaui</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-nauerunt "<choice><expan><ex>nauerunt</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-os "<choice><expan><ex>os</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-ras "<choice><expan><ex>ras</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-rendi "<choice><expan><ex>rendi</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-sereberis "<choice><expan><ex>sereberis</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-ses "<choice><expan><ex>ses</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tabuntur "<choice><expan><ex>tabuntur</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tas "<choice><expan><ex>tas</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tate "<choice><expan><ex>tate</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tauerunt "<choice><expan><ex>tauerunt</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-tionis "<choice><expan><ex>tionis</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-titia "<choice><expan><ex>titia</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-uat "<choice><expan><ex>uat</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-simple-uiant "<choice><expan><ex>uiant</ex></expan><abbr><am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-anensis "<choice><expan><ex>anensis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ate "<choice><expan><ex>ate</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-atorum "<choice><expan><ex>atorum</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-nauit "<choice><expan><ex>nauit</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-elio "<choice><expan><ex>elio</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ensem "<choice><expan><ex>ensem</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ensi "<choice><expan><ex>ensi</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ensis "<choice><expan><ex>ensis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-entum "<choice><expan><ex>entum</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-erit "<choice><expan><ex>erit</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-esis "<choice><expan><ex>esis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ias "<choice><expan><ex>ias</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-iis "<choice><expan><ex>iis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-it "<choice><expan><ex>it</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-i "<choice><expan><ex>i</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-il "<choice><expan><ex>il</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-inasti "<choice><expan><ex>inasti</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-inatur "<choice><expan><ex>inatur</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-is "<choice><expan><ex>is</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-onensem "<choice><expan><ex>onensem</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-rum "<choice><expan><ex>rum</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-sem "<choice><expan><ex>sem</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-ar "<choice><expan><ex>ar</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-sis "<choice><expan><ex>sis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ta "<choice><expan><ex>ta</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-tibus "<choice><expan><ex>tibus</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ut "<choice><expan><ex>ut</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-unt "<choice><expan><ex>unt</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-sp-ur-tur "<choice><expan><ex>tur</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- à l'intérieur -->
<!ENTITY cco-tilde-cacion "<choice><expan>c<ex>a</ex>c<ex>i</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>cco<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY co-tilde-catio "<choice><expan>c<ex>ati</ex>o</expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY co-tilde-cio "<choice><expan>c<ex>i</ex>o</expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY co-tilde-cion "<choice><expan>c<ex>i</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY co-tilde-cione "<choice><expan>c<ex>i</ex>o<ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY co-tilde-ctio "<choice><expan>c<ex>ti</ex>o</expan><abbr>co<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY to-tilde-tio "<choice><expan>t<ex>i</ex>o</expan><abbr>to<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY to-tilde-tion "<choice><expan>t<ex>i</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>to<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBES, PRONOMS -->
<!-- par suspension -->
<!ENTITY a-tilde-at "<choice><expan>a<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-tilde-autem "<choice><expan>a<ex>utem</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY an-tilde-ante "<choice><expan>an<ex>te</ex></expan><abbr>an<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY at-tilde-autem "<choice><expan>a<ex>u</ex>t<ex>em</ex></expan><abbr>a<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY au-tilde-autem "<choice><expan>au<ex>tem</ex></expan><abbr>au<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY aut-tilde-autem "<choice><expan>aut<ex>em</ex></expan><abbr>aut<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY bn-tilde-bene "<choice><expan>b<ex>e</ex>n<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>bn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ei-tilde-enim "<choice><expan>e<ex>n</ex>i<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr>ei<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hac "<choice><expan>h<ex>ac</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hoc "<choice><expan>h<ex>oc</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-tilde-me "<choice><expan>m<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>m<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nb-tilde-nobis "<choice><expan>n<ex>o</ex>b<ex>is</ex></expan><abbr>nb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pp-tilde-propter "<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>p<ex>ter</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>̃</am>p</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pp-barré-propter "<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>p<ex>ter</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-barré-pro-tilde-propter "<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>p<ex>ter</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝓ</am>p<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qn-tilde-quando "<choice><expan>q<ex>ua</ex>n<ex>do</ex></expan><abbr>qn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qn-tilde-quoniam "<choice><expan>q<ex>uo</ex>n<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr>qn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY scd-tilde-secundum "<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>un</ex>d<ex>um</ex></expan><abbr>scd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY scd-tilde-secundu "<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>un</ex>d<ex>u</ex></expan><abbr>scd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY scd-tilde-secund "<choice><expan>s<ex>e</ex>c<ex>un</ex>d</expan><abbr>scd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sp-p-barré-semper "<choice><expan>s<ex>em</ex>p<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr>s<am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- par contraction -->
<!ENTITY io-tilde-ideo "<choice><expan>i<ex>de</ex>o</expan><abbr>io<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nc-tilde-nunc "<choice><expan>n<ex>un</ex>c</expan><abbr>nc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qd-tilde-quod "<choice><expan>q<ex>uo</ex>d</expan><abbr>q<am>̃</am>d</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qm-tilde-quem "<choice><expan>q<ex>ue</ex>m</expan><abbr>q<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qm-tilde-quantum "<choice><expan>q<ex>uantu</ex>m</expan><abbr>q<am>̃</am>m</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qm-tilde-quoniam "<choice><expan>q<ex>uonia</ex>m</expan><abbr>qm<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qmo-tilde-quomodo "<choice><expan>q<ex>uo</ex>m<ex>od</ex>o</expan><abbr>qm<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qs-tilde-quatenus "<choice><expan>q<ex>uatenu</ex>s</expan><abbr>qs<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY quo-tilde-quomodo "<choice><expan>qu<ex>omod</ex>o</expan><abbr>qu<am>̃</am>o</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sb-tilde-sub "<choice><expan>s<ex>u</ex>b</expan><abbr>sb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sr-tilde-super "<choice><expan>s<ex>upe</ex>r</expan><abbr>sr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tc-tilde-tunc "<choice><expan>t<ex>un</ex>c</expan><abbr>tc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tm-tilde-tantum "<choice><expan>t<ex>antu</ex>m</expan><abbr>tm<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tn-tilde-tamen "<choice><expan>t<ex>ame</ex>n</expan><abbr>tn<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY uo-tilde-uero "<choice><expan>u<ex>er</ex>o</expan><abbr>uo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- ABREVIATIONS PAR LETTRES SUSCRITES -->
<!-- mot entier -->
<!ENTITY an-a-suscrit-anathomia "<choice><expan>an<ex>athomi</ex>a</expan><abbr>an<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY c-us-cuius "<choice><expan>c<ex>uius</ex></expan><abbr>c<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY con-tironien-a-suscrit-contra "<choice><expan>con<ex>tr</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY con-tironien-v-suscrit-conspectu "<choice><expan>con<ex>spect</ex>u</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am><am>ͮ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY e-us-eius "<choice><expan>e<ex>ius</ex></expan><abbr>e<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ecc-a-suscrit-ecclesia "<choice><expan>ecc<ex>lesi</ex>a</expan><abbr>ecc<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ecc-e-suscrit-ecclesie "<choice><expan>ecc<ex>lesi</ex>e</expan><abbr>ecc<am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-us-huius "<choice><expan>h<ex>ui</ex>us</expan><abbr>h<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY hi-us-huius "<choice><expan>h<ex>ui</ex>us</expan><abbr>hi<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY hi-us-huiusmodi "<choice><expan>h<ex>ui</ex>us<ex>mod</ex>i</expan><abbr>hi<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-d-suscrit-illud "<choice><expan>i<ex>llu</ex>d</expan><abbr>i<am>ͩ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ier-m-suscrit-ierusalem "<choice><expan>ier<ex>usale</ex>m</expan><abbr>ier<am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY g-i-suscrit-igitur "<choice><expan>ig<ex>itur</ex></expan><abbr>g<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY g-o-suscrit-ergo "<choice><expan><ex>er</ex>go</expan><abbr>g<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY g-us-gnus "<choice><expan>g<ex>n</ex>us</expan><abbr>g<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ig-ur-igitur "<choice><expan>ig<ex>uitur</ex></expan><abbr>ig<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY loq-ur-loquitur "<choice><expan>loq<ex>uitur</ex></expan><abbr>loq<am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-o-suscrit-modo "<choice><expan>m<ex>od</ex>o</expan><abbr>m<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-a-suscrit-materia "<choice><expan>m<ex>ateri</ex>a</expan><abbr>m<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY n-o-suscrit-nocturno "<choice><expan>n<ex>octurn</ex>o</expan><abbr>n<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-a-suscrit-praedica "<choice><expan>p<ex>raedic</ex>a</expan><abbr>p<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-a-suscrit-praeterea "<choice><expan>p<ex>raetere</ex>a</expan><abbr>p<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-ae-suscrits-publicae "<choice><expan>p<ex>ublic</ex>ae</expan><abbr>p<hi rend='sup'>ae</hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pin-i-suscrit-princeps "<choice><expan>p<ex>r</ex>in<ex>ceps</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>ͥ</am>n</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-o-suscrit-primo "<choice><expan>p<ex>rim</ex>o</expan><abbr>p<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-t-suscrit-potest "<choice><expan>p<ex>otes</ex>t</expan><abbr>p<am>ͭ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-us-pos "<choice><expan>p<ex>os</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-us-post "<choice><expan>p<ex>ost</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pp-a-suscrit-papa "<choice><expan>p<ex>a</ex>pa</expan><abbr>pp<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pp-e-suscrit-pape "<choice><expan>p<ex>a</ex>pe</expan><abbr>pp<am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-m-suscrit-quoniam "<choice><expan>q<ex>uonia</ex>m</expan><abbr>q<am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qn-o-suscrit-quando "<choice><expan>q<ex>ua</ex>n<ex>do</ex></expan><abbr>qn<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY t-i-suscrit-t-i-suscrit-tituli "<choice><expan>tit<ex>ul</ex>i</expan><abbr>t<am>ͥ</am>t<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY u-o-suscrit-uero "<choice><expan>u<ex>er</ex>o</expan><abbr>u<am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY x-i-suscrit-Christi "<choice><expan>Ch<ex>rist</ex>i</expan><abbr>x<am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY x-s-suscrit-Christus "<choice><expan>Ch<ex>ristu</ex>s</expan><abbr>x<am>ᷤ</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- orig/reg lettres suscrites pour elles-mêmes -->
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-a "<choice><reg>a</reg><orig>ͣ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY c-suscrit-c "<choice><reg>c</reg><orig>ͨ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-suscrit-d "<choice><reg>d</reg><orig>ͩ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-e "<choice><reg>e</reg><orig>ͤ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-i "<choice><reg>i</reg><orig>ͥ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-suscrit-l "<choice><reg>l</reg><orig>ᷝ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-suscrit-m "<choice><reg>m</reg><orig>ͫ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-o "<choice><reg>o</reg><orig>ͦ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-suscrit-r "<choice><reg><ex>r</ex></reg><orig>ͬ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-suscrit-s "<choice><reg>s</reg><orig>ᷤ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY t-suscrit-t "<choice><reg><ex>t</ex></reg><orig>ͭ</orig></choice>">
<!ENTITY u-suscrit-u "<choice><reg><ex>u</ex></reg><orig>ͧ</orig></choice>">

<!-- lettres suscrites -->
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-cia "<choice><expan>cia</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-ma "<choice><expan><ex>m</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-na "<choice><expan><ex>n</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-ra "<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-ta "<choice><expan><ex>t</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-tia "<choice><expan><ex>t</ex>ia</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-suscrit-ua "<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>a</expan><abbr><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY c-suscrit-ec "<choice><expan><ex>e</ex>c</expan><abbr><am>ͨ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY c-suscrit-ic "<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>c</expan><abbr><am>ͨ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-me "<choice><expan><ex>m</ex>e</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-ne "<choice><expan><ex>n</ex>e</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-re "<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>e</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-ste "<choice><expan>ste</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY e-suscrit-ue "<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>e</expan><abbr><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-hri "<choice><expan><ex>hr</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-bi "<choice><expan><ex>b</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ibi "<choice><expan><ex>ib</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ic "<choice><expan>i<ex>c</ex></expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ichi "<choice><expan><ex>ich</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ir "<choice><expan>i<ex>r</ex></expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-isi "<choice><expan><ex>is</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-mi "<choice><expan><ex>m</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ni "<choice><expan><ex>n</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-pri "<choice><expan><ex>pr</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ri "<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-suscrit-ui "<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>i</expan><abbr><am>ͥ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-suscrit-ium "<choice><expan><ex>iu</ex>m</expan><abbr><am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-suscrit-um "<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>m</expan><abbr><am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY n-suscrit-n "<choice><expan>n</expan><abbr><am>ᷠ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-esimo "<choice><expan><ex>esim</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-go "<choice><expan><ex>g</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-io "<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-no "<choice><expan><ex>n</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-ro "<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-tio "<choice><expan><ex>ti</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-suscrit-uo "<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>o</expan><abbr><am>ͦ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-suscrit-ir "<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>r</expan><abbr><am>ͬ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-suscrit-tur "<choice><expan><ex>tu</ex>r</expan><abbr><am>ͬ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-suscrit-os "<choice><expan><ex>o</ex>s</expan><abbr><am>ᷤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY t-suscrit-erit "<choice><expan><ex>eri</ex>t</expan><abbr><am>ͭ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY t-suscrit-it "<choice><expan><ex>it</ex></expan><abbr><am>ͭ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY t-suscrit-ut "<choice><expan><ex>ut</ex></expan><abbr><am>ͭ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY u-suscrit-ru "<choice><expan><ex>r</ex>u</expan><abbr><am>ͧ</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- ABREVIATIONS PAR SIGNES SPECIAUX -->
<!ENTITY et-perluette "<choice><expan>et</expan><abbr><am>&</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY et-perluette-tilde-etiam "<choice><expan>et<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr><am>&</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY et-tironien "<choice><expan>et</expan><abbr><am>⁊</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY et-tironien-barré "<choice><expan>et</expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY et-tironien-tilde-etiam "<choice><expan>et<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr><am>⁊</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY et-tironien-barré-tilde-etiam "<choice><expan>et<ex>iam</ex></expan><abbr><am></am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY co-tironien "<choice><expan>co</expan><abbr><afile:/C:/Users/hamel/Desktop/FRCHANJJ_JJ035_0019V_A.TIFm>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY con-tironien "<choice><expan>con</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY com-tironien "<choice><expan>com</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY com-tironien-commen "<choice><expan>com<ex>en</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cum-tironien "<choice><expan>cum</expan><abbr><am>ꝯ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY us-base "<choice><expan>us</expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- P et Q -->
<!ENTITY p-barré-per "<choice><expan>p<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-barré-peru "<choice><expan>p<ex>eru</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-barré-par "<choice><expan>p<ex>ar</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-barré-por "<choice><expan>p<ex>or</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-barré-pra "<choice><expan>p<ex>ra</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-barré-pro "<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝓ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY P-barré-Pro "<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex></expan><abbr><am>Ꝓ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-tilde-pre "<choice><expan>p<ex>re</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-tilde-preter "<choice><expan>p<ex>reter</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q2-quia "<choice><expan>q<ex>uia</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-barré-qui "<choice><expan>q<ex>ui</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝗ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY Q-barré-Qui "<choice><expan>Q<ex>ui</ex></expan><abbr><am>Ꝙ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY Q-barré-Quod "<choice><expan>Q<ex>uod</ex></expan><abbr><am>Ꝙ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY Q-barré-a-suscrit-Quam "<choice><expan>Q<ex>u</ex>a<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am>Ꝙ</am><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-barré-a-suscrit-quam "<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>a<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-barré-a-suscrit-quan "<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>a<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-barré-e-suscrit-quem "<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>e<ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-barré-e-suscrit-quen "<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>e<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>ͤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-barré-diagonale-quod "<choice><expan>q<ex>uod</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-barré-diagonale-tilde-quem "<choice><expan>q<ex>uem</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝙ</am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-tilde-que "<choice><expan>q<ex>ue</ex></expan><abbr>q<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qi-a-suscrit-quasi "<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>a<ex>s</ex>i</expan><abbr>qi<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY qm-a-suscrit-quam "<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>am</expan><abbr>qm<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- SIGNES D'ABREVIATION -->

<!-- TILDE -->
<!ENTITY tilde-a "<choice><expan><ex>a</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ab "<choice><expan><ex>ab</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-am "<choice><expan><ex>am</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-an "<choice><expan><ex>an</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-as "<choice><expan><ex>as</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-i "<choice><expan><ex>i</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ie "<choice><expan><ex>ie</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-is "<choice><expan><ex>is</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-iu "<choice><expan><ex>iu</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-m "<choice><expan><ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-mi "<choice><expan><ex>mi</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-n "<choice><expan><ex>n</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-na "<choice><expan><ex>na</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ne "<choice><expan><ex>ne</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ni "<choice><expan><ex>ni</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-o "<choice><expan><ex>o</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-on "<choice><expan><ex>on</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-u "<choice><expan><ex>u</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-um "<choice><expan><ex>um</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-un "<choice><expan><ex>un</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-us "<choice><expan><ex>us</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-e "<choice><expan><ex>e</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-em "<choice><expan><ex>em</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-en "<choice><expan><ex>en</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-in "<choice><expan><ex>in</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-men "<choice><expan><ex>men</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-min "<choice><expan><ex>min</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-er "<choice><expan><ex>er</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-eru "<choice><expan><ex>eru</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ir "<choice><expan><ex>ir</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ri "<choice><expan><ex>ri</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ra "<choice><expan><ex>ra</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-re "<choice><expan><ex>re</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-er "<choice><expan><ex>er</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-eru "<choice><expan><ex>eru</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-ir "<choice><expan><ex>ir</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-re "<choice><expan><ex>re</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-iis "<choice><expan><ex>iis</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-vertical-is "<choice><expan><ex>is</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ar "<choice><expan><ex>ar</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-or "<choice><expan><ex>or</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-r "<choice><expan><ex>r</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-ur "<choice><expan><ex>ur</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷑</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-us "<choice><expan><ex>us</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-s "<choice><expan><ex>s</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-sp-us-neus "<choice><expan><ex>neus</ex></expan><abbr><am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-d "<choice><expan><ex>d</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-s "<choice><expan><ex>s</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY iam-tilde-igentiam "<choice><expan>i<ex>genti</ex><ex>am</ex></expan><abbr>genti<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- LE POINT ET SON EVOLUTION -->
<!ENTITY b-signe-double-bus "<choice><expan>b<ex>us</ex></expan><abbr>b<am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY b-signe-simple-bus "<choice><expan>b<ex>us</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-signe-double-libet "<choice><expan>l<ex>ibet</ex></expan><abbr>l<am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-signe-double-licet "<choice><expan>l<ex>icet</ex></expan><abbr>l<am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY n-signe-double-neque "<choice><expan>n<ex>eque</ex></expan><abbr>n<am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-signe-simple-que "<choice><expan>q<ex>ue</ex></expan><abbr>q<am>.</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-signe-double-que "<choice><expan>q<ex>ue</ex></expan><abbr>q<am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-rond-barré-rum "<choice><expan>r<ex>um</ex></expan><abbr>ꝝ</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-signe-double-sed "<choice><expan>s<ex>ed</ex></expan><abbr>s<am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY u-signe-double-uidelicet "<choice><expan>u<ex>idelicet</ex></expan><abbr>u<am></am></abbr></choice>">

<!ENTITY signe-double-tilde-est "<choice><expan><ex>est</ex></expan><abbr><am></am><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

<!ENTITY susp-signe-double-e "<choice><expan><ex>e</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-double-et "<choice><expan><ex>et</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-double-m "<choice><expan><ex>m</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-signe-double-que "<choice><expan><ex>que</ex></expan><abbr><am></am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- LETTRES BARREES -->
<!ENTITY s-barré-ser "<choice><expan>s<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-barré-secundum "<choice><expan>s<ex>ecundum</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-barré-secundu "<choice><expan>s<ex>ecundu</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-barré-secund "<choice><expan>s<ex>ecund</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- EX LETTRES BARREES = LETTRE + TILDE -->
<!ENTITY b-tilde-ber "<choice><expan>b<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY b-tilde-bis "<choice><expan>b<ex>is</ex></expan><abbr>b<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-de "<choice><expan>d<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-ud "<choice><ex>u</ex><expan>d</expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hec "<choice><expan>h<ex>ec</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-al "<choice><expan><ex>a</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-el "<choice><expan><ex>e</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-il "<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-ili "<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>l<ex>i</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-le "<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-ul "<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-ulu "<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>l<ex>u</ex>u</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-lati "<choice><expan>l<ex>ati</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-lis "<choice><expan>l<ex>is</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-lur "<choice><expan>l<ex>ur</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-uel "<choice><expan><ex>ue</ex>l</expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-liter "<choice><expan>l<ex>iter</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY l-tilde-iliter "<choice><expan><ex>i</ex>l<ex>liter</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- ABREVIATIONS PAR GRAPHISME -->
<!ENTITY H-entre-points-enim "<choice><expan><ex>enim</ex></expan><abbr><am>·</am>H<am>·</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY est-point-trait-point "<choice><expan><ex>est</ex></expan><abbr><am>÷</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY i-entre-points-idest "<choice><expan>i<ex>dest</ex></expan><abbr><am>.i.</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- VS -->

<!-- TERMINAISONS ET LETTRES ADSCRITES -->
<!ENTITY ca-sup-blica "<choice><expan><ex>bli</ex>ca</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>ca</hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ca-sup-lica "<choice><expan><ex>li</ex>ca</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>ca</hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ce-sup-lice "<choice><expan><ex>li</ex>ce</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>ce</hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY cia-sup-cancia "<choice><expan><ex>can</ex>cia</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>cia</hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-sup-nium "<choice><expan><ex>niu</ex>m</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>m</hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY onum-sup-tionum "<choice><expan><ex>ti</ex>onum</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>onum</hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ter-sup-lariter "<choice><expan><ex>lari</ex>ter</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>ter</hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tum-sup-tatum "<choice><expan><ex>ta</ex>tum</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>tum</hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY rium-sup-larium "<choice><expan><ex>la</ex>rium</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>rium</hi></abbr></choice>">

<!-- ABREVIATIONS PAR SEBASTIEN -->
<!ENTITY franc-tilde-francorum "<choice><expan>Franc<ex>orum</ex></expan><abbr>Franc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY Ph-tilde-Philippus "<choice><expan>Ph<ex>ilippus</ex></expan><abbr>Ph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY par-tilde-parisius "<choice><expan>Par<ex>isius</ex></expan><abbr>Par<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY par-tilde-parisiensi "<choice><expan>Par<ex>isiensi</ex></expan><abbr>Par<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pictav-tilde-pictaviensi "<choice><expan>Pictav<ex>iensi</ex></expan><abbr>Pictav<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pict-tilde-pictaviensis "<choice><expan>Pict<ex>aviensis</ex></expan><abbr>Pict<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pictaven-tilde-pictaviensi "<choice><expan>Pictaven<ex>iensi</ex></expan><abbr>Pictaven<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pontis-tilde-pontisaram "<choice><expan>Pontis<ex>aram</ex></expan><abbr>Pontis<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY quat-tilde-quatinus "<choice><expan>quat<ex>inus</ex></expan><abbr>quat<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-tilde-rariis "<choice><expan>r<ex>ariis</ex></expan><abbr>r<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tpr-tilde-tempor "<choice><expan>t<ex>em</ex>p<ex>o</ex>r</expan><abbr>tpr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-libus "<choice><expan>l<ex>ibus</ex></expan><abbr>l<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ia "<choice><expan><ex>ia</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY thol-tilde-tholose "<choice><expan>Thol<ex>ose</ex></expan><abbr>Thol<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sen-tilde-senescalliam "<choice><expan>sen<ex>escalliam</ex></expan><abbr>sen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sen-tilde-senescallo "<choice><expan>sen<ex>escallo</ex></expan><abbr>sen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sen-tilde-senescallie "<choice><expan>sen<ex>escallie</ex></expan><abbr>sen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sen-tilde-senescallum "<choice><expan>sen<ex>escallum</ex></expan><abbr>sen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sen-tilde-senescallia "<choice><expan>sen<ex>escallia</ex></expan><abbr>sen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sen-tilde-senescallus "<choice><expan>sen<ex>escallus</ex></expan><abbr>sen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sen-tilde-senescalli "<choice><expan>sen<ex>escalli</ex></expan><abbr>sen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lectum "<choice><expan>lc<ex>e</ex>t<ex>um</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mil-tilde-militem "<choice><expan>mil<ex>item</ex></expan><abbr>mil<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ipe-tilde-ipse "<choice><expan>ip<ex>s</ex>e</expan><abbr>ipe<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-si "<choice><expan><ex>si</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-tilde-ocio "<choice><expan>o<ex>cio</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY testim-tilde-testimonium "<choice><expan>testim<ex>imonium</ex></expan><abbr>testim<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-barré-are "<choice><expan>s<ex>are</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-es "<choice><expan><ex>es</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY vr-tilde-vestr "<choice><expan>v<ex>est</ex>r</expan><abbr>vr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nob-tilde-nobis "<choice><expan>n<ex>o</ex>b<ex>is</ex></expan><abbr>nob<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-os "<choice><expan><ex>os</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ium "<choice><expan><ex>ium</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pp-barré-prop "<choice><expan>p<ex>ro</ex>p</expan><abbr><am>ꝑ</am><am>ꝑ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY oi-tilde-omni "<choice><expan>o<ex>mn</ex>i</expan><abbr>oi<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ite "<choice><expan><ex>ite</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-iosi "<choice><expan><ex>iosi</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-iose "<choice><expan><ex>iose</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-iosis "<choice><expan><ex>iosis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-at "<choice><expan><ex>at</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mon-tilde-monasterii "<choice><expan><ex>mon</ex>asterii</expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY guillo-tilde-guillelmo "<choice><expan>guill<ex>elmo</ex></expan><abbr>guill<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-tilde-vertical-pri "<choice><expan>p<ex>ri</ex></expan><abbr><am>͛</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ex-tilde-extra "<choice><expan>ex<ex>tra</ex></expan><abbr>ex<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY Lodunen-tilde-Lodunensibus "<choice><expan>Lodunen<ex>sibus</ex></expan><abbr>Lodunen<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY libr-tilde-librarum "<choice><expan>libr<ex>arum</ex></expan><abbr>libr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY Ph-tilde-Philipp "<choice><expan>Ph<ex>ilipp</ex></expan><abbr>Ph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY Lud-tilde-Ludovic "<choice><expan>Lud<ex>ovic</ex></expan><abbr>Lud<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ver "<choice><expan><ex>ver</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY a-nis-suscrit-acionis "<choice><expan>a<ex>cio</ex>nis</expan><abbr>a<am>ᷠ</am><am>;ͥ</am><am>ᷤ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY sp-c-suscrit-spec "<choice><expan>sp<ex>e</ex>c</expan><abbr>sp<am>ͨ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY oe-tilde-ione "<choice><expan>i<ex>o</ex>n<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>oe<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY vp-m-suscrit-verump "<choice><expan>v<ex>erum</ex>p</expan><abbr>vp<am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-io "<choice><expan><ex>io</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY eio-tilde-esimo "<choice><expan>e<ex>s</ex>i<ex>m</ex>o</expan><abbr>eio<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY test-tilde-testimonium "<choice><expan>test<ex>imonium</ex></expan><abbr>test<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY febr-tilde-februario "<choice><expan>febr<ex>uario</ex></expan><abbr>febr<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY d-tilde-icium "<choice><expan>d<ex>icium</ex></expan><abbr>d<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ibus "<choice><expan><ex>ibus</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY thol-tilde-tholosanus "<choice><expan>Thol<ex>osanus</ex></expan><abbr>Thol<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pictaven-tilde-pictavensem "<choice><expan>Pictaven<ex>sem</ex></expan><abbr>Pictaven<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY eet-tilde-esset "<choice><expan>e<ex>ss</ex><ex>et</ex></expan><abbr>eet<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mon-tilde-monasterium "<choice><expan><ex>mon</ex>asterium</expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY m-suscrit-dum "<choice><expan><ex>du</ex>m</expan><abbr><am>ͫ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mon-tilde-monasterio "<choice><expan><ex>mon</ex>asterio</expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY oe-tilde-asione "<choice><expan>asi<ex>o</ex>n<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>oe<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY apd-tilde-apud "<choice><expan>ap<ex>u</ex>d</expan><abbr>apd<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lectus "<choice><expan>l<ex>e</ex>c<ex>tus</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY p-barré-por "<choice><expan>p<ex>or</ex></expan><abbr><am>ꝓ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY limo-tilde-legitimo "<choice><expan>l<ex>egit</ex>imo</expan><abbr>limo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ensium "<choice><expan><ex>ensium</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-se "<choice><expan><ex>se</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-sium "<choice><expan><ex>sium</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-tilde-here "<choice><expan>h<ex>ere</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-nsium "<choice><expan><ex>nsium</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY millo-tilde-millesimo "<choice><expan>mill<ex>esim</ex>o</expan><abbr>millo<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-tia "<choice><expan><ex>tia</ex>ia</expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-arum "<choice><expan><ex>arum</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ca-tilde-sup-blicam "<choice><expan><ex>bli</ex>cam</expan><abbr><hi rend='sup'>ca<am>̃</am></hi></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY euuangl-tilde-euuangeliste "<choice><expan>euuangl<ex>iste</ex></expan><abbr>euuangl<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY relig-tilde-religiosis "<choice><expan>relig<ex>iosis</ex></expan><abbr>relig<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY relig-tilde-religiosos "<choice><expan>relig<ex>iosos</ex></expan><abbr>relig<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-oribus "<choice><expan><ex>oribus</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-iorum "<choice><expan><ex>iorum</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-atis "<choice><expan><ex>atis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nat-susp-tilde-ivitatis "<choice><expan>nat<ex>ivitatis</ex></expan><abbr>nat<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY te-tilde-tiste "<choice><expan>t<ex>ist</ex>e</expan><abbr>te<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-sas "<choice><expan><ex>sas</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ncc-tilde-neccessari "<choice><expan>n<ex>e</ex><surplus>cc</surplus><ex>essari</ex></expan><abbr>ncc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY r-suscrit-ur "<choice><expan><ex>u</ex>r</expan><abbr><am>ͬ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY relig-tilde-religiosorum "<choice><expan>relig<ex>iosorum</ex></expan><abbr>relig<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ii "<choice><expan><ex>ii</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY relig-tilde-religiosi "<choice><expan>relig<ex>iosi</ex></expan><abbr>relig<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY pt-tilde-propter "<choice><expan>p<ex>rop</ex>t<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr>p<am>̃</am>t</abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY one-tilde-asione "<choice><expan>asi<ex>o</ex>ne</expan><abbr>one<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ilii "<choice><expan><ex>ilii</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ron-tilde-racion "<choice><expan>r<ex>aci</ex>on</expan><abbr>ron<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-atori "<choice><expan><ex>atori</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY lc-tilde-lict "<choice><expan>l<ex>i</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>lc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY q-a-suscrit-qua "<choice><expan>q<ex>u</ex>a</expan><abbr>q<am>ͣ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY nuc-tilde-nunc "<choice><expan>nu<ex>n</ex>c</expan><abbr>nuc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY tilde-ero "<choice><expan><ex>ero</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ecc-tilde-ecclesi "<choice><expan>ecc<ex>lesi</ex></expan><abbr>ecc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY hui-tilde-sp-huiusmodi "<choice><expan>hui<ex>usmodi</ex></expan><abbr>hui<am>᷒</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY testio-tilde-testimon "<choice><expan>testi<ex>m</ex>o<ex>n</ex></expan><abbr>testio<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY s-barré-sores "<choice><expan>s<ex>ores</ex></expan><abbr><am>ẜ</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY abb-tilde-abbatiss "<choice><expan>abb<ex>atiss</ex></expan><abbr>abb<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY fc-tilde-fect "<choice><expan>f<ex>e</ex>c<ex>t</ex></expan><abbr>fc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY relig-tilde-religiosais "<choice><expan>relig<ex>iosas</ex></expan><abbr>relig<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY apl-tilde-appel "<choice><expan>ap<ex>pe</ex>l</expan><abbr>ap<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY susp-tilde-ciis "<choice><expan><ex>ciis</ex></expan><abbr><am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-tilde-her "<choice><expan>h<ex>er</ex></expan><abbr>h<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY slt-tilde-salutem "<choice><expan>s<ex>a</ex>l<ex>u</ex>t<ex>em</ex></expan><abbr>slt<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY mil-tilde-militis "<choice><expan>mil<ex>itis</ex></expan><abbr>mil<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY o-tilde-ione "<choice><expan>i<ex>o</ex>n<ex>e</ex></expan><abbr>o<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY ncc-tilde-neccessar "<choice><expan>n<ex>e</ex><surplus>cc</surplus><ex>essar</ex></expan><abbr>ncc<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

<!-- stephan / ephiphan
voir steph-tilde-stephan-->
<!ENTITY h-tilde-han "<choice><expan>ph<ex>an</ex></expan><abbr>ph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">
<!ENTITY h-tilde-hani "<choice><expan>ph<ex>ani</ex></expan><abbr>ph<am>̃</am></abbr></choice>">

Florence Cloppet a soutenu son HDR !

L’un des chercheurs impliqués dans le projet Oriflamms vient de soutenir son habilitation à diriger des recherches (en bref : HDR), sous le titre « De l’Utilisation d’Informations/Connaissances en Analyse et Interprétation d’Images » ! Avec toutes les équipes partenaires, nous nous en réjouissons et en donnons ici le résumé.

Florence Cloppet : De l’Utilisation d’Informations/Connaissances en Analyse et Interprétation d’Images

Le travail présenté dans le cadre de cette habilitation à diriger des recherches propose une synthèse d’activités et de travaux scientifiques, qui s’inscrivent dans une approche pluridisciplinaire translationnelle de l’enseignement et de la recherche. Nous nous sommes principalement intéressée d’un point de vue théorique à l’analyse et l’interprétation de structures complexes en vision par ordinateur, dans la continuité de nos travaux de Doctorat.
Il nous est apparu qu’il ne fallait pas opposer recherche théorique et applicative, mais plutôt les faire interagir de manière étroite. En effet, l’application peut pousser à des développements théoriques, et inversement la robustesse de la méthodologie développée a besoin des applications pour être évaluée. Nos travaux se sont inscrits dans deux domaines applicatifs particuliers : les domaines de l’imagerie du vivant et du document. Même si ces deux domaines peuvent apparaître relativement éloignés ils présentent néanmoins des similitudes au niveau des problèmes posés et de la méthodologie de traitements utilisée. En effet, les objets à extraire ou à caractériser comme tout objet inhérent à la nature humaine ou produit par l’homme présentent une grande variabilité avec des structures relativement complexes. Par ailleurs, ils constituent des champs thématiques où la sémantique de l’image est très forte.
L’approche translationnelle adoptée, nous a permis de mieux comprendre le domaine traité et les attentes d’une analyse computationnelle de la part des experts, d’extraire des informations, de modéliser des connaissances du domaine liées soit aux objets d’intérêt, soit au mode de raisonnement des experts du domaine. Ces informations ou connaissances a priori ont été intégrées dans les algorithmes via des cadres théoriques bien établis dans la littérature, mais qui nécessitent un travail conséquent de reformulation pour s’adapter aux imperfections (bruit, résolution etc.) des images, et à la complexité des formes à segmenter ou à caractériser, et ce, que ce soit dans des images biomédicales ou des images de documents.
Nos principales contributions se situent dans l’extraction d’informations ou connaissances a priori à partir des images ou à partir du dialogue avec les experts, et à l’introduction de ces informations ou connaissances (propriétés géométriques et/ou radiométriques, informations sur la position relative de points d’intérêt ou de structures) dans les processus de segmentation ou d’interprétation de manière à éviter une initialisation précise des structures à segmenter, une intervention de l’expert lors des processus d’analyses et d’interprétation d’images mais aussi de manière à introduire une certaine flexibilité et adaptabilité des méthodes développées par rapport à la variabilité des formes étudiées, et aux conditions d’observation (structures saines ou pathologiques par exemple, suivi longitudinal en cas de traitement dans le cas d’images biomédicales, scripteurs et époques d’écriture différents, documents dégradés ou avec des conditions de numérisation variables, dans le cas d’images de documents).

Mots-clefs : Analyse et interprétation d’images, utilisation d’informations/connaissances, extraction d’information, agrégation multi-critères.

Écritures médiévales et outils numériques. Carnet du projet ECMEN (Ecriture médiévale et outils numériques), successeur du projet ORIFLAMMS (Ontology Research, Image Features, Letterform Analysis on Multilingual Medieval Scripts) et